Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Ethical Issues in the Pharmaceutical Industry - 2511 Words

Running head: ETHICAL ISSUES IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY Ethical Issues in the Pharmaceutical Industry Abstract No one can deny that the pharmaceutical industry has made significant contributions to human progress. The pharmaceutical industry has been responsible for drugs that have saved millions of lives, cured many forms of cancer, and ensured that an AIDS diagnosis is no longer an automatic death sentence. Yet despite this there are questions that the public has on whether the industry has been fulfilling their social responsibility. There are many ethical questions that need to be addressed on how the pharmaceutical industry can be a better corporate citizen, and how the public can also ensure that when they go to the†¦show more content†¦203). The gift giving practices are not limited to just the primary care physicians. This practice is extended to nurses as well as medical students. Medical education is very expensive and the medical student is more vulnerable and more apt to be enticed by the gifts and generosities as well as the influence of the pharmaceutical representative. â€Å"Studies conducted by the University of Toronto conclude that more than 80% of surveyed students had received at least a book and in some cases much more† (Kerridge, Komesaroff, 2002, p. 119). Nurses as well have become a more significant target of the pharmaceutical companies. â€Å"Some cite the reason behind this as being related to the increase in nurses who have the authority to prescribe† (Crock, 2009, p. 202). Even if a nurse does not have the authority to prescribe drugs, they are still heavy influencers in the decision making process of how to best treat the patent and possibly what drug to prescribe. What makes a nurse a prime target for the pharmaceutical representative is that most nurses do not have the funds or financial support to develop their own careers. One single donation from a drug company can easily fund a seminar featuring a speaker, catered lunches or dinners, a full bar and any other sort of entertainment. This will go a long way in nurses encouraging others in their profession to attend these conferences. In what can be described as a blatant case of conflict of interest, some nursingShow MoreRelatedEthical Issues Within The Pharmace utical Industry Essay1297 Words   |  6 Pagescover ethical issues within the pharmaceutical industry, present opinion on Direct-to-Consumer marketing by drug companies, determine the parties responsible for regulation of compounding pharmacies, PharmaCARE used U.S. law to protect its own intellectual property, summarize at least one current example of intellectual property theft, analyze the potential issues surrounding the death of John’s wife, and lastly present major arguments that John can claim as a whistleblower. Ethical issues withinRead MoreEthical Issues Within The Pharmaceutical Industry Essay2287 Words   |  10 Pagescover ethical issues within the pharmaceutical industry, present opinion on Direct-to-Consumer marketing by drug companies, determine the parties responsible for regulation of compounding pharmacies, PharmaCARE used U.S. law to protect its own intellectual property, summarize at least one current example of intellectual property theft, analyze the potential issues surrounding the death of John’s wife, and lastly present major arguments that John can claim as a whistleblower. Ethical issues withinRead MoreEthics779 Words   |  4 PagesEthics in the Pharmaceutical Industry Business Law Ivy Tech Community College Tamara Baxter September 20, 2013 The pharmaceutical industry has a difficult task when it comes to doing the right thing, put people or profits first (Weber, 2006). To keep their operations operating they must approach a duties-based ethical approach because the lives of their stakeholders are literally at risk. A religious ethical standard would mean not to falsely proclaim that a drug does somethingRead MoreThe Ethical Marketing Strategy Of Pharmaceutical Advertising1451 Words   |  6 PagesWhat are some of the ethical issues associated with this marketing strategy? Pharmaceutical advertisements has been the subject of deliberation for more than a century. Pharmaceutical advertising and marketing make up a large fragment of the activities of pharmaceutical corporations. These publications can be extremely informative as long as they are analytically evaluated. However, the data enclosed in promotional material may be scant or erroneous. Assuredly, the pharmaceutical marketing activitiesRead MoreEthical Q uestion of Gift-giving in the Pharmaceutical Industry1542 Words   |  6 Pagesthe Pharmaceuticals industry, between Medical sales consultants and healthcare professionals ethical or unethical? In â€Å"Relationships Between Health Professionals and Industry: Maintaining a Delicate Balance†, published in Australian Prescriber Magazine, Professor of Medicine Paul A Komesaroff describes how to maintain an ethical relationships between health professionals and the sale consultants and argues that there are four ways to achieve this relationship: Government regulations, industry regulationsRead MorePharmaceutical Industry Legality Essay705 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿ Specify the types of country risks that pharmaceutical firms face in international business. How do the political and legal systems of countries affect the  global pharmaceutical industry? The different types of country risks for the pharmaceutical firms are: 1. Pricing: Many Asian and African countries are poor and cannot afford the costly medicines. The Pharmaceutical firms spend vast amounts on RD in creating and marketing drugs, thus charging high prices enables for costRead MoreThe Ethical Appropriateness Of Direct Consumer Advertising Of Drugs Essay1246 Words   |  5 Pagesjudgement on the ethical appropriateness of direct consumer advertising of drugs? I believe in the case where pharmaceutical companies are advertising with television commercials or paid advertisements within magazines are well within moral and good ethical standards. Consumers can choose to remain on the same television channel or read an advertisement within a magazine to become more educated about a specific pharmaceutical. However, in the case referenced in the article, where a pharmaceutical companyRead MoreMedicine, Health Care, And Philosophy Essay1220 Words   |  5 Pagesthe issues in the health care industry. However, this publication is more directed towards professionals than the public. 6. Who is the audience of this publication (in terms of the traits we discussed in class—age, gender, income level, etc.)? The audience of this publication would be graduate students, doctorates, and any physicians. They can be any gender, and a predicted income level of high 5 figure or 6 figure salary. A person without sufficient knowledge in the health care industry wouldRead MoreDrugs and Ethics Essay example1150 Words   |  5 PagesEthics and law do not always go hand in hand. Not every law is ethical, and even if a law is considered ethical on its surface, it may result in unethical outcomes. Ethics refers to well-founded standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues.† The pharmaceutical industry confronts several dilemmas every year. Most of these dilemmas revolve around money or whether or not to sacrificeRead MoreEthics Of The Health Care Industry995 Words   |  4 Pages Ethics in the health care industry are one of the most important cornerstones of patient care. Making ethical decisions, being vigilant in the lack of ethical decision making, and being proactive in the reporting and advancement of ethical practices are important factors for marketing professionals such as physicians and other health care professionals to be wary of. Conduct by pharmaceutical representatives and ethical practices in the marketing of pharmaceutical drugs have been revamped over

Monday, December 16, 2019

Memory Test Outcomes Differences Naive and Non-Naive...

Memory Test Outcomes: Differences? Naà ¯ve and Non-Naive participants using Levels of Processing Test Abstract 90words Introductions 450 Many researchers have tried to unravel the mystery of memory in the brain. Early popular theorist Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) proposed that memories are kept in the brain in â€Å"stores† or rather locations where the information is held. They suggest that new information detected from the environment enters to the sensory memory. If attention is paid, the information then flows to the short term memory (STM). Thereafter, information must be rehearsed in order to lock it into the long term memory (LTM). This multi store model is a classic model of memory. In 1970’s, memory researchers†¦show more content†¦Material: Coglab 2.0 on a CD (Francis, Neath Vanhorn, 2008) Level of Processing Test Procedure:The test was done in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of 60 judgement tasks. Three type of judgement tasks were randomly mixed. First judgement was to decide correct pattern of consonants and vowels to a word. Second judgement was deciding if two words rhyme. Third judgement task was to decide if the words appeared are synonyms. Participants were to press the / key for ‘yes’(agree) answers and the z key for ‘not’(disagree) answers for all the three judgement tasks. Participants moved to the next task by pressing the space bar. Phase 2 of the test was the memory recall test. A 120 word series was shown, one after the other. At every interval participants were to decide if the word appeared in phase 1. Only half of the words appeared were in phase 1. The operative key press is the same as phase 1. At the end of the test, the raw scores on memory accuracy and the explanation of the test will be made available to the participant. Results 190 |MIXED DESIGN |LEVEL OF PROCESSING | | | |SHALLOW |DEEP | | |NAIVETY |NAIVEShow MoreRelatedThe PFC, Executive Function, and Dysfunction Essay2534 Words   |  11 Pageswhich is associated with perceptual integration, and associates with the premotor cortex, the cerebellum, and basal ganglia, all which help, regulate movement and motor control. The PFC additionally connects to those structures, which are critical for memory and include the thalamus, and hippocampus. Furthermore, the PFC connects to the hypothalamus, which regulates homeostasis, with the amygdala, which regulates human relations. Finally, the PFC is reciprocates with brain stem nuclei responsible forRead MoreCognitive Resilience in Adulthood9822 Words   |  40 Pagespropose that (a) engagement, a sustained investment in mental stimulation, and (b) personal agency, which enables one to construct a niche for successful life span development, constitute the centerpiece of cognitive resilience. Numerous factors at the level of the individual and the sociocul tural context set the stage for engagement and agency, thereby contributing to life span cognitive resilience, which can in turn impact factors promoting engagement and agency (e.g., health management, dispositionRead MoreOnline Crime Reporting System17148 Words   |  69 Pagesbe managed. No human society has ever been totally free of deviants and it is unlikely that society will ever be. The more populated and complex a society becomes the wider the range of anti-social conduct that must be controlled by government using police power. The incident-based system reports on a much broader range of crimes and includes data on the circumstances of the crime, the victim, and the defendant. The current crime reporting system is faced with several difficulties as there isRead MoreMr Zhang42340 Words   |  170 Pagesconsidering the issuance of stock to the public. Write a report discussing tests of controls for clients that are public companies compared with those that are not public companies. If Lakeside were to become a public company, what impact would that have on Abernethy and Chapman s tests of controls? Objective – Comparison of internal auditing in the general case and in the public case. (7-1) The case assumes that tests of controls have been completed and substantive testing in the payroll areaRead MoreCloud Computing Security67046 Words   |  269 Pagesdisplay on your computer, view, print, and link to the Cloud Security Alliance Guidance at subject to the following: (a) the Guidance may be used solely for your personal, informational, non-commercial use; (b) the Guidance may not be modified or altered in any way; (c) the Guidance may not be redistributed; and (d) the trademark, copyright or other notices may not be removed. You may quote portions of the Guidance as permitted by the FairRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words   |  960 PagesCommerce (A): The Role of the Operating Manager in Information Systems 10 PART I Information Technology Chapter 2 Computer Systems 17 19 Basic Components of Computer Systems 20 Underlying Structure 20 Input/Output 20 Computer Memory 21 Arithmetic/Logical Unit Computer Files Control Unit 23 23 25 The Stored-Program Concept 25 Types of Computer Systems 28 Microcomputers 29 Midrange Systems 30 Mainframe Computers Supercomputers 33 34 Key TypesRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. 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Whitman Chap 0118683 Words   |  75 Pagessecurity—that is, the need to secure physical locations, hardware, and software from threats— arose during World War II when the first mainframes, developed to aid computations for communication code breaking (see Figure 1-1), were put to use. Multiple levels of security were implemented to protect these mainframes and maintain the integrity of their data. Access to sensitive military locations, for example, was controlled by means of badges, keys, and the facial recognition of authorized personnel by

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Poets often write about ideas through exploring emotions Essay Example For Students

Poets often write about ideas through exploring emotions Essay Poets often write about ideas through exploring emotions. In light of this comment, examine ways in which poets develop their ideas through feelings and emotions. You should write about a least two poems including the darkling thrush or gods grandeur, or both. To explore this comment, I am going to analyse two poems, The Darkling Thrush, by Thomas Hardy, and Gods Grandeur, by Gerard Manley Hopkins. In The Darkling Thrush, Hardy gives a very negative image. He uses phrases such as when frost was spectre-grey, and The Centurys corpse outleant, which give the reader the image of death. In this poem Hardy is talking about the death of the 19th century as it moves into the 20th Century. The poem itself was written on the 31st December 1899, the turn of the Century. Hardy shows the narrator as having sad, grievous emotions throughout the poem. This is contrasted with the emotions of the thrush, which is portrayed to be celebrating, and happy. The narrator appears to have given up on life, which is shown through the comment And every spirit on earth seemed fervourless as I. On the other hand, the thrush which is shown as being towards the end of its life in the verse an aged thrush, frail, gaunt and small, seems to be holding on to all it can. The narrators comment shows his opinion on the time in the verse so little cause for carolings. The thrush however is in the process of giving a full-hearted evensong, which is giving the impression that there was everything to live for. In this poem, Hardy develops his feelings and emotions from the third verse of the first stanza. He shows that the winter is bleak, and not much good can come from it. The second stanza again gives the very negative impression, giving the imagery of a funeral scene to start with. This personification of the new year and new century as though it is dead gives the idea of a very bleak future. The poem then gives an indication that it is every person on earth that feels this way, not just the narrator. The feelings are very disheartening, which may be a reflection of the general feeling of the people of Britain at the time with the industrial revolution having just occurred, and people being cooped up in factories all day long. The thrush however, represents the possibility of new hope, which the poet is unaware of. The last two verses show this. Some blessed hope, whereof he knew And I was unaware. The poet here is showing a sense of desperation, saying please be a hope that I dont know of yet. The ABAB rhyme scheme gives the poem a continuation throughout, with the feelings and emotions being carried on from the beginning to the end of the poem. In many of the verses, enjambment occurs, which carries on the emotion, whether that is the sad emotion of the poet or the happy emotions of the thrush, onto the next verse. In contrast to this poem is Gods Grandeur. In this poem, Hopkins is giving the impression of a beautiful thing that has been destroyed by man, but which recovers due to the presence of a greater being, God. The poem is in the form of a sonnet. It gives both positive and negative emotions throughout. The first few verses talk about the greatness of the world, the creation of God. These verses do not convey any real emotion, they give an idea of greatness in the world. The fourth verse however, conveys despair in the question why do men now not reck his rod? This is saying, why do men wreck the world? The next few verses are also conveying desperation. They are showing the mark that men have left on the earth. The word trod gives the impression of heavy, damaging steps, while the word toil gives the idea of trouble and conflict. .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .postImageUrl , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:hover , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:visited , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:active { border:0!important; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:active , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The analyzation of the Great Gatsby EssayAll of the first stanza is conveying desperation at the state man leaves the what was beautiful creation of God, in the state that it is in. It gives the idea that man is ruining the earth for himself. The second stanza starts on a more positive note. The first verse is And for all this nature is never spent. It conveys the idea of new hope. It is showing that despite mans attempt to wreck the world, nature always returns to its original state. The last verse, World broods with warm breast and with ah! bright wings, gives the impression of the world reproducing. The poem starts off conveying emotions of despair and hopelessness, with man wrecking what was once a beautiful creation of God, but being left damaged and possibly beyond repair. The second stanza contrasts to this with the idea of fresh hope being given. The world that man has wrecked is repaired by the power, grace and grandeur of God. The rhyming couplets in the first stanza give the suggestion of heaviness as man goes through the world, while the ABAB rhyme scheme in the second stanza portrays the thought that things slowly start to return to their original state.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

This Week We Offered A Plan To End Welfare As We Know It

This week we offered a plan to end welfare as we know ita plan that will encourage personality and help strengthen our families through tougher child support, more education and training, and an absolute requirement to go to work after a period of time. -Bill Clinton, radio address, 6/18/94 The welfare system is in deep distress. From the time of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to the current reigning of Bill Clinton, many a bills have been brought for to reform it. Originally, Roosevelt established the system as a type of government stripend to financially challenged individuals; however, it was not intended to act as a dependent income for them (Tucker 45). Even though many changes have been made over the past three years, it has not made much of an impact on the problems at hand (Pear). Officials discovered that many welfare recipients misuse the benefits. Studies have shown that the welfare system should begin by providing job placement, ending benefits for illegitimacy, and educating the young. First, the aspect of job placement is directly related to the misuse of welfare. In order to succeed at rising employment rates, current wages have to increase dramatically. A welfare check ranges form $5.53 to $17.50 an hour; in a like manner, minimum wage is less than an hourly welfare check (Tilly 8). People desire the higher money of a welfare check to that of a low-paying job (Tweedie 117; Tanner 18). This dependency on receiving the check causes many problems not just with the current generation, but future generations will also be similarly affected. These children are acquiring the habits of their parent or parents, thus creating a permanent underclass (Tucker 45). Economic incentives for staying on welfare should be abolished. People should no longer be allowed to remain on the system for extended periods of time. In accordance with the lesser incentives, the government should place more emphasis on raising the current hourly wage (Haskins 126). Most importantly, the government needs to portray a working world in which job training is not only the standard, but also the required (Tanner 17). Providing jobs with training not only educates the person, but also supplies him or her with opportunities to acquire a better paying job with a future (Willis 4). This training would not just teach skills, but it would make job development workers move more people into the mainstream (Garr 193). In Wisconsin, Republican legislators have devised a method of reform called W-2 Wisconsin Works. W-2 is a work program that would require all recipients over eighteen to work for cash assistance (Tweedie 117). Many welfare recipients are often stereotyped as lazy; moreover, these recipients need to take charge of their lives (Leavitt 22). They need to realize that they are capable of doing competent work. They hav e to compete to prosper. Second, illegitimacy needs to be curbed by stopping aid to promiscuous mothers who continue to have out-of-wedlock pregnancies. The establishment of anti-illegitimacy policies is imperative. These policies should propose to stop payment to unwed others (Haskins 126). The government should not reward for illegitimacy. According to Ron Haskins, Trying to help poor children by giving their underage mothers cash will often simply produce more poor children, reformers argued. Wise societies don't reward births outside of marriage in this way (Haskins 126). If a young woman becomes pregnant again, she does not have to make a choice between living at home with her parents or finding a husband. She simply can continue to produce more illegitimate children. This reoccurrence of illegitimacy is exactly one of the reasons that a stopping of incentives is needed (Tucker 45). In a like manner, the most effective way to reduce births is with a family cap. The family cap is a provision that denies greater cash to women who continue to have births while receiving welfare (Donovan 73). It is designed to discourage out-of-wedlock births (Sollom 41). The government needs to include a child exclusion provision like both China and Japan currently have (Donovan 73). Disincentives are required to act as the primary strategy for regulating poor women's reproductive behaviors (Sollom 41). This unorthodox behavior causes much strain on the welfare system, since the state rewards extra money for additional children. Third,