Saturday, August 31, 2019
Analysis of Challenges in International ManagementÃ¢â¬ Abstract The following essay analysis the challenges in International Management with particular regard to the challenge of Ã¢â¬Å"cultureÃ¢â¬ in international business as it is the must difficult to deal with and being essential for successful results in a wide range of global management tasks nowadays and in the future. Introduction Today successful international management requires more than a lot of frequent flyer miles or seasoned expatriate managers. But what are those exclusive challenges of international management in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world? The importance of international management is constantly increasing, as we exist in a world where globalisation is affecting the traditional borders in a broad range of areas. Ã¢â¬ ¢Trade and investment, Ã¢â¬ ¢Economic alliances, Ã¢â¬ ¢The international stage players, and Ã¢â¬ ¢The work environment are changing rapidly, being supported by the increasing sophistication and lower cost of information technology. World trade and investments are growing fast (the volume of world trade among countries has grown at an average rate over 8% since 2005 (WTO 2008)), linking the economies and creating opportunities and threats. New, strong and forced competitors are coming from developing nations in Asia and the transitioning economies of Eastern Europe. Furthermore, the constantly rising level of foreign direct investment also has a globalising effect (Thomas 2002). Moreover, the emergence of the free-trade areas drastically decreased traditional economic boundaries. So do the three largest groups, the EU, the NAFTA, and the APEC, account for nearly half of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s trade (Cullen 2002) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) now has 140 member-nations, aiming to reduce tariffs and liberalize trade. But globalization also affects the work environments within organizations. Changes involve cutbacks, team-based management movements and privatization. For instance, there can be factory closings, as Nokia closing their German plant in Bochum moving to Romania, because of cheaper labour. All in all, as one key consequence of globalisation, international managers nowadays have to face a more dynamic, complex, competitive and uncertain environment and need skills (as a global mindset or the ability to work with people from diverse background) not considered necessary for domestic-only managers. The environment of international management can be divided into Ã¢â¬ ¢economic, Ã¢â¬ ¢legal, Ã¢â¬ ¢political, and Ã¢â¬ ¢cultural factors (Thomas 2002). So for making decisions it is essential to understand the economic strategies of the countries in or with one wants to conduct business with, because level of economic development and quality of life differs extremely worldwide. Furthermore, there are various national sovereign laws and regulations existing in the world which have to be observed and made allowance for. And in addition, there are several varieties of political systems (e. g. , theocratic totalitarianism in Saudi Arabia), containing different levels of political risks which have to be managed. For instance, decision makers have to able to estimate the degree of risk associated with a governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s involvements in business affairs depending on characteristics of their company. All these factors present impressive challenges multinational management has to face. However, the management challenge of culture and its effects on business practices and organizations is one of the most difficult to deal with. As conducting business with people from other cultures will never be easy you have to understand how culture affects management and organizations. Ã¢â¬Å"CultureÃ¢â¬ is a concept borrowed from cultural anthropology and there are numerous and subtle different definitions. As each definition has limitations focussing on international management the following description of Geert Hofstede seems very helpful. He defines the culture of any society as comprising shared values, understandings, assumptions and goals learned from earlier generations, imposed by present members of a society and passed on to succeeding generations (Hofstede 2008). Culture is something shared by members of a particular group, differentiates humans from other groups, is transmitted through the process of learning and adapts to external and internal environments and relationships. The international businessperson needs to be aware of three levels of cultures that may influence multinational operations. These include national culture, business culture, and organisational cultures (Cullen 2002). National culture can be described as the dominant culture within the political borders of a nation-state. But one has to be aware that multiple cultures can exist within political boundaries and they do not necessarily reflect cultural borders. For instance, Canada being home to Anglophones and Francophones. Furthermore, even relatively homogenous cultures can have diverse subcultures, including cultural differences which are affecting the international business. Nevertheless, as most business is conducted within the political borders of a state and nations can be defined as political unities, varying in governmental, legal, educational, institutional and labour systems, influencing the way people interact with their environment (Thomas 2002), national culture has the greatest effect on international business being probably the most logic starting point trying to understand the cultural environment. Business culture, reflecting the national culture, influences all aspects of work and organizational life (e. g. , motivating staff, negotiating with business partners, etc. and knowing itÃ¢â¬â¢s basic requirements (e. g. , what to wear to business meetings, business etiquette is more formal in Germany than in the U. S. with conservative dark business suits, etc. ) is essential for the international manager. Moreover, especially in the last few years, people realized that the Ã¢â¬Å"cultureÃ¢â¬ -concept also holds for individual organizations. So may differences in organizational culture may be one reason why the merger of two otherwise successful companies failed. It is important to evaluate the influence of organizational rules, norms and procedures to understand the causes of behaviour in organizations. With shared behaviours, conditional relationship, being socialized into and partly involved in it, etc. organizational culture differs in construction and elements of national culture. Even so understanding these cultural factors is fundamental for international managers conducting international business, they have to be aware that Ã¢â¬Å"culturesÃ¢â¬ can just offer wide guidelines for behaviour, as for instance organizational cultures differ within any national context and individuals vary in each culture level. One cannot predict exactly how each person acts, feels, thinks, etc. Nonetheless, broad generalization about a culture provides a level of analysis from which to begin to understand the cultural environment and the complexities of cultural differences, because management functions such as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling in a global economy have to account for them. As international managers have to face various cultural challenges testing their management abilities they must be able to unpack the culture concept. Therefore the basic concepts of cultural dimensions can help them understand how two or more cultures might be different. An essential implication of these frameworks referring to international management and culture is that cultural interpretation and adaptation are a prerequisite to the comparative understanding of international management practice (Morden 1995). The following sections describe two popular models. HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s Culture Model This Framework, created by dutch scientist Geert Hofstede and based on a research over 11600 people in 50 countries (starting with 39 IBM subsiadiaries worldwide), tries to evaluate how basic values underlay organizational behaviour. National differences are investigated by five dimensions of basic cultural values: 1. Power distance 2. Uncertainty avoidance 3. Individualism 4. Masculinity and 5. Long-term orientation (Hofstede 2008). 1. This first value dimension refers to how cultures deal with inequality and tries to postion the inequality acceptance level by unequal power distribution society members. In countries with a high power distance acceptance (e. g. , such as Mexico), people respect and hardly ever bypass formal hierarchy positions (Elizabeth M. Christopher 2008). 2. The second value dimension concerns about the degree humans in a society are threatened by uncertain situations. The social system of a higher uncertainty avoidance society is dominated by regulations and rules, predictabilties and orders and people tend to be suspicious of change, whereas people from lower levels of uncertainty avoidance societies (for instance, countries such as Denmark). tend to be less formal, take higher business risks and plan and structure less 3. Individualism refers to the affinity to primarily take care of oneself and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s direct family, and then to the rest of society (with the U. S. being a good example) (Elizabeth M. Christopher 2008). 4. The fourth dimension of Ã¢â¬Å"masculinityÃ¢â¬ concerns about the ranking of tradionally Ã¢â¬Å"masculineÃ¢â¬ values in a society, such as less concerning for others, materialism and assertiveness, whereas Ã¢â¬Å"feminityÃ¢â¬ on the other side emphasises the quality of life and relationships. 5. Long-term orientation cultures are insistent and saving (e. g. the culture of China) and short-term orientation is more self-centered, money-oriented and more social. All these factors are inter-reliant and interactive in their effects. So shows the Anglo-Dutch example Unilever the practicability of multinational enterprises where the power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and individualism values are similar; and where the masculine achievement orientation of the British complements the people orientation of the Dutch (Morden 1995). All in all, so there is a lot of criticism (for instance, the time-dependence of the results, the non-exhaustive investigation of only one multinational US company, etc. to these findings and the model of Hofstede, it is still a very valuable and useful Ã¢â¬Å"giftÃ¢â¬ for understanding culture and culture-based behavior. TrompenaarsÃ¢â¬â¢ Culture Model The model created by Fons Trompenaars its also based on the researched of value dimensions. He studied the behavoiur of 15000 managers, representing 47 national cultures (Hampden-Turner 2008). Five of the seven dimensions of his model deal with the challenges of h ow people relate to each other: 1. Universalism versus particularism 2. Neutral versus affective 3. Specific versus diffuse . Achievement versus ascription 5. Time as sequence versus synchronisation The two final dimensions deal with how a culture manages time and how it deals with nature. They include: 6. The society-orientation to the past, present, or future and 7. Ã¢â¬Å"Control ofÃ¢â¬ versus Ã¢â¬Å"accommodation withÃ¢â¬ nature 1. The value of univerlism refers to the application to systems and rules objectively, without taking consideration to personal circumstances, whereas the particularism culture (e. g. in countries as Spain) is more subjective and focusses more on relationships. 2. The second, the neutral-versus-affective, value dimension refers on the emotional orientation of relationships (such as expressing your feelings and emotions more like, for example, the Portugese). 3. In Addition the specific-versus-diffus dimension investigates if people from a special culture tend to be more or less specific or diffuse in their relationships (for example, Germans try to separate work and personal issues). 4. In the achievement-versus-ascription dimension, it is asked: Ã¢â¬ What is the source of power and status in society? Ã¢â¬ (Elizabeth M. Christopher 2008) So is for instance, in an achievement refering culture, the Ã¢â¬Å"statusÃ¢â¬ of a person mainly based on itÃ¢â¬â¢s individual achievement (such as job performance, etc. ). 5. Ã¢â¬Å"Time as sequenceÃ¢â¬ orientated cultures separate events in time (Ã¢â¬Å"step-by-stepÃ¢â¬ ), whereas Ã¢â¬Å"time as synchronisationÃ¢â¬ -orientated indiviuals manage events in parallel. (For example, if their business partners are not sharp on time, Germans, coming from a Ã¢â¬Å"time-as-sequenceÃ¢â¬ orientated culture, may consider it an insultation). 6. This value dimension is about past versus future orientations. 7. Moreover, this dimension refers to the extent to which individuals feel that they themselves are the primary influence on their lives. Using this framework trying to understand some culture-basics some interesting patterns may emerge. Altough, being recognised for their validity (the results of these both major studies have some significant parallels, even so they were carried out in different times using different methods and examples), these concepts of cultural value orientation proposed by Hofstede and Tropmenaar can only give a basic framework for the analysis of cultural differences. They are utensils to help understand a culture and adjusting business practices to diverse cultural environments. They are for instance, a prerequisite to the successful new-market country entry, whether by setting up licensing or new subsidiaries, joint ventures, mergers or for the establishment of efficient programmes of international HR development (Kay 1993). But international managers have to realise that the understanding of another culture is a inexhaustible learning process. They will have to practice for their international work with or in other countries by studiying all that they can about the country, including more than just the business etiquette. Understanding the national culture builds just the foundation. As you seldom can get behind the front stage of culture without speaking the national language onother basic instrument is learning the language. But the challenge of Ã¢â¬Å"cultureÃ¢â¬ in international management takes such much more than this. International managers have to broaden their understanding of cultural differences and to learn to seek advantage in differences. Understanding the culture is just a basis for the diverse international management tasks, as appropriate cross-cultural communication (using appropiate communication styles), effective and positive motivating and leadership in international organisations and across cultures, successful negotiation with international business partners and making ethically and socially responsible decisions. Conclusion The environment of international management can be divided into economic, legal, political, and cultural factors, with Ã¢â¬Å"cultureÃ¢â¬ being the most challenging and most difficult to deal with, influencing a broad range of management tasks. Providing oneself with the necessary knowlegde and understanding of the national culture of the country or the people one is conducting business with is essential and builds just the foundation for the successful complementation of global management tasks, such as for instance leadership in multinational organisations (where you have to have understanding of all three levels of culture; national, business and organisational culture, being different and influencing each other).
Friday, August 30, 2019
One of the most Important things that a port or activity must have to be even being considered extreme Is a large amount of danger and In this case, the more the better. Other factors that go hand In hand with extreme danger are extreme levels of speed , outrageous heights and a high level of physical fitness as well as anything else that could be factored Into not normal. Most extreme sports do however have several common characteristics. They're not Just for today's youth and younger generation, but they do tend to draw a younger audience. Ere rarely will you find an extreme sport endorsed, or promoted by any popular porting company like Nikkei for example. Extreme sports and activities are mostly for individuals and unlike traditional sports; the term team doesn't apply or exist. Extreme sport individuals are also different in that they have a will and attitude to take risk and welcome danger and even possible injury. They seem to have a adrenaline drive when the outcome is uncert ain as to what will happen, always going for more speed, more height and bigger tricks under extreme conditions.This unquestionable drive gives these individuals the ability to surpass the limits of where others fear to go and do. They also tend to master their sport of choice alone or in the company of other extreme sporting individuals very rarely seeking coaching or training. Environments also play a large role in making extreme sports extreme. Extreme sports have a much higher certainty of uncontrolled factors than traditional sports.Extreme sports environments are most often in outdoor settings where weather and terrain can't be controlled thus making it more dangerous. The canvas extreme sport individuals use to paint their art on tends to be mountains and oceans. Using such elements like snow, wind and rain to heighten the levels of fisticuff and danger as well as the odds of succeeding. Some people may feel that extreme sports are nothing more than gatherings for the trouble d youths who reject authority and are bored with the Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ or traditional sports.This statement may have been true fifteen to twenty years ago, but nothing could be farther from the truth that today's extreme sports and activities are growing ever more popular In the world than the traditional sports of baseball, football and basketball. Extreme Sports By canvasbacks extreme sport or activity is still questionable. One of the most important things that a port or activity must have to be even being considered extreme is a large amount of danger and in this case, the more the better.Other factors that go hand in hand with physical fitness as well as anything else that could be factored into not normal. Most extreme sports do however have several common characteristics. They're not Just for Very rarely will you find an extreme sport endorsed, or promoted by any popular weather and terrain can't be controlled thus making it more dangerous. The canvas truth that today's ex treme sports and activities are growing ever more popular in the Extreme Sports One of the most Important things that a port or activity must have to be even being considered extreme Is a large amount of danger and In this case, the more the better. Other factors that go hand In hand with extreme danger are extreme levels of speed , outrageous heights and a high level of physical fitness as well as anything else that could be factored Into not normal. Most extreme sports do however have several common characteristics. They're not Just for today's youth and younger generation, but they do tend to draw a younger audience. Ere rarely will you find an extreme sport endorsed, or promoted by any popular porting company like Nikkei for example. Extreme sports and activities are mostly for individuals and unlike traditional sports; the term team doesn't apply or exist. Extreme sport individuals are also different in that they have a will and attitude to take risk and welcome danger and even possible injury. They seem to have a adrenaline drive when the outcome is uncert ain as to what will happen, always going for more speed, more height and bigger tricks under extreme conditions.This unquestionable drive gives these individuals the ability to surpass the limits of where others fear to go and do. They also tend to master their sport of choice alone or in the company of other extreme sporting individuals very rarely seeking coaching or training. Environments also play a large role in making extreme sports extreme. Extreme sports have a much higher certainty of uncontrolled factors than traditional sports.Extreme sports environments are most often in outdoor settings where weather and terrain can't be controlled thus making it more dangerous. The canvas extreme sport individuals use to paint their art on tends to be mountains and oceans. Using such elements like snow, wind and rain to heighten the levels of fisticuff and danger as well as the odds of succeeding. Some people may feel that extreme sports are nothing more than gatherings for the trouble d youths who reject authority and are bored with the Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ or traditional sports.This statement may have been true fifteen to twenty years ago, but nothing could be farther from the truth that today's extreme sports and activities are growing ever more popular In the world than the traditional sports of baseball, football and basketball. Extreme Sports By canvasbacks extreme sport or activity is still questionable. One of the most important things that a port or activity must have to be even being considered extreme is a large amount of danger and in this case, the more the better.Other factors that go hand in hand with physical fitness as well as anything else that could be factored into not normal. Most extreme sports do however have several common characteristics. They're not Just for Very rarely will you find an extreme sport endorsed, or promoted by any popular weather and terrain can't be controlled thus making it more dangerous. The canvas truth that today's ex treme sports and activities are growing ever more popular in the
Thursday, August 29, 2019
PEST Analysis Political The international IT and electronics industries have been characterized with intensive competition. Electronics and IT companies are constantly reviewing their achievements as well as the competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ in order to come up with better business strategies in an effort to best all other existing industry rivals. With the merger and acquisition strategy between HP and Compaq, members of the IT and electronics industry all over the world were threatened with the intensified effort that could result from the integration. Others were surprised because mergers and acquisition strategies may also result to negative implications on the part of the merging companies particularly when differences in the context of strategies, culture and goals fail to be fully integrated. Economic For HP and Compaq, the merger will increase the competitiveness of the previously independent companies in order to outdo the achievements of highly aggressive competitors. Both HP and Compaq sought means to add value to their existing products and services in order to increase the level of satisfaction among their clients and customers which were made possible through the merger. Once satisfaction levels among clients and customers are met, HP-Compaq expect better economic competitiveness within the international IT and electronics industry. Social The existing companies have been on guard when it comes to new market trends, new market opportunities, new customer bases, and technological infrastructure available for utilization. The merger between HP and Compaq will most likely result to better social activities as sponsored by the merged companies. Social and civic activities that were previously independently supported by HP and Compaq will be carried out in new perspective due mostly to the fact that the merger could expose unexpected factors that could make the new company unstable. Technological One of the primary reasons for the merger of HP and Compaq are the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ drive towards innovation and development in their products and services. The merger enabled relatively stronger research and development efforts for theÃ benefit of the new company since it is now characterized with more intensive concerns to come up with IT products and services that will cater to existing as well as new clients and customers thereby increasing the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ consumer bases. At present the electronics products of HP have been observed to undergone evolution with the support facilities which were made available by Compaq. Five Forces Analysis Suppliers The merger resulted to review and assessment of the existing suppliers of both HP and Compaq since the integration strategy implied the relatively fewer contracts between companies that provide similar services and raw materials to HP and Compaq. However, the integration likewise resulted to innovation in technology which necessitated new contracts with suppliers that can provide the new services and raw materials needed by HP-Compaq as a single corporation. Buyers With the promised added value on the products and services of the HP-Compaq merger, clients and customers of the company could expect new and better product lines and service offers as one of the primary objectives of the integration strategy. Buyer power will be intensified in this respect since the HP-Compaq will be offering new electronics products and services in order to set new market trends in the international IT and electronics industry. Competitors Competitors of HP and Compaq were somehow divided when it comes to the overall implications of the merger to the international IT and electronics industry. There are those who believe that the merger will result to the continuous weakening of both companies compared to their other stronger competitors in the international IT and electronics industries. While some believe otherwise due to the increased capability of HP and Compaq as a single operating company to build up and strengthen the market positions in the future years that will come. Substitutes Substitute products and services are increasing within the international IT and electronics industry which contributed to the integration decisionÃ between HP and Compaq. With the conglomerate efforts between the new HP-Compaq corporation, it is expected the substitute products and services that competes with the provisions and offers of HP-Compaq will be lessen due to better production and manufacturing processes and technological infrastructures that cannot be afforded by small rival companies. New Entrants New entrant in the electronics and IT industries are confronted with relatively more difficult entry to the international market due primarily to highly aggressive competition between and among large corporations. It is common knowledge that business operations and facilities that characterize both the international IT and Electronics industries are very expensive and sophisticated. Such factors serve as strong barriers of entry to the industries where HP-Compaq belongs. SWOT Analysis Strengths The merger between HP and Compaq will increase the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ competitiveness when it comes to the possible new product lines and services that they will offer as a single company to the clients and customers. The integration strategy likewise resulted fewer market competition within the context of large international corporations that also belong to the international IT and electronics industry. Costs will be reduced as expenditures in business operations such as manufacturing and production are now handled and managed as a single proprietorship. The research and development arm of HP and Compaq can now work together as single company with similar technological and economic goals. Weaknesses The integration strategy between HP and Compaq, on the other hand, resulted to the need to lay off thousands of employees since their services will be no longer needed particularly those who have similar functions. Cultural integration within the workplace is also a serious issue since HP and Compaq are composed of different individuals and employees who are used to different working environments as well as career expectations. The Human resource department will be confronted with problems and issues regarding the new members of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce. Technical operations will alsoÃ experience drawbacks from the changes that will transpire within the business processes of the company. Opportunities The issues and problems that may result from the merger in terms of workforce differences can be perceived as an avenue fro improvement when it comes to workplace culture of the company. The management should be able to device means to exhaust diverse knowledge and skills that characterize the members of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s labor force. Operations should likewise be restructured and reengineered in order to come up with better manufacturing and production processes that take into account efficiency and product quality. Threats The failure of the merger strategy is also possible if HP and Compaq are not able to resolve issues caused by differing workplace cultures. The vulnerability of the merged company is likewise exposed since it is only a couple of years since the merger contract was signed. There is still so much to do for the full implementation of the merger strategy and existing competitors will aggressively take the opportunity of the changes that transpired within the new HP-Compaq company. Both internal and external factors may contribute to the challenges and difficulties that HP-Compaq will experience in the future in the effort to succeed in the international market competition. Strengths Hewlett-PackardÃ¢â¬â¢s primary strength is its business position. The enterprise has a large amount of cash in hand about $10 billion. Hewlett-Packard is a global enterprise and especially after its merger with Compaq, the company became worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest computer hardware and peripherals consort in the world and has ranked 20th in the Fortune 500 list. Hewlett Packard is operating in more than 170 countries including both developed as well as under-developed. Being a global dealer of computer hardware, it gives HP many advantages like dominating printers market, both laser and inkjet. The company attracts and focuses on consumers from even newly found markets all around the world, multinational corporations, non-governmental organizations etc. The company compete both at local and international level. It has increased its competitiveness through policies and strategies that supports free-market economies. This is one of the reasons that make HP a leadingÃ supplier in the growing IT markets. Hewlett Packard is said to have a complete product port folio. Weaknesses The company was in a long term debt for many years which kept it from investing in different growth opportunities. A major problem and complaint about the hardware supplies of HP is its touch pads. The touch pads of the notebooks of Hewlett Packard like the dv series, dm3, and Envy lines needs improvement. These touch pads are either finicky, unreliable, or are difficult to use because of friction. The mouse buttons on various HP supplied machines are said to be clumsy to use, too. Poor shelling life of HP products plagued some mainstream systems and net books. When it comes to Software that HP provides there are also some weaknesses. Some heavy softwareÃ¢â¬â¢s were paired with slow hardware like Touch Smart. The past acquisition of Peregrine made the HPÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio even more diverse and complete but HP Open ViewÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of mainframe management capabilities created several problems. Another weakness was that it did not yet hit a CMDB product that includes discovery and mapping. This cause many customers to switch the brand. Opportunities The recent acquisition of EDS puts HP at a strong position in the computer market and makes it portfolio more impressive. Hewlett-Packard was able to generate large number of revenues and profits from its different deals and raised more than six billion which it can use to pay off its debts as well as invest in different research and development activities. If the products by the company are supplied at reasonable prices, there will be more chances of growth as the demand would increase. The company has formed Customer Solutions Group that helps in selling the complete IT solutions, products and services by HP. Threats Operating in global market means many competitors and therefore, the company has to be at the forefront of changing technologies as well as addressing the changing customer demands and needs. The global economic recession is also a threat for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s sales and profits. The prices have also fallen as the stock markets are at historic low positions. Many other competitors including Dell are entering the printer business whereas IBM hasÃ become a market leader.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
The Effects of Bullying on Middle School Students Attendance - Dissertation Example according to Smith and Sharp (1994, p.64), when successful interventions and policies are designed to counter school bullying, it improves Ã¢â¬Å"pupil achievement and attendance over time.Ã¢â¬ Samdal et al. (1997) studied how the middle school studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ judgment and perception of school affected their academic performance, attendance and school satisfaction. They found that middle school students were always less satisfied with their school environment as compared to younger or primary school students. According to them, Ã¢â¬Å"The most important predictors of students' satisfaction with school are students' feeling that they are treated fairly, that they feel safe and that they believe that teachers are supportiveÃ¢â¬ (p.383). They concluded that unfair treatment like bullying decreased student satisfaction and eventually their attendance. They stated that the need is to give more attention to peer-to-peer and student-teacher relationship rather than focusing more on c ompleting the curricular requirements. Doing so would help in putting a barrier to bullying, school violence, and nonattendance. Smith et al. (2004) studied the behavioral patterns shown by 406 different middle school victimized students of bullying and concluded that continuing victims Ã¢â¬Å"more often missed schoolÃ¢â¬ (p.565) than escaped victims. Newsome (2004) studied group interventions to reduce middle school studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic underachievement and school non-attendance resulting from bully. 26 students were given the treatment and 26 were not. He found that although those students who were given treatment improved their grades, however there was no difference or improvement in non-attendance in both the groups. This showed that bully had serious effects on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ psychology which made them turn away... This essay declares that bullying students are normally very sociable and bold without any idea of shame or guilt; whereas, the bullied ones are already very shy and unsure which makes the overall idea of going to school and attending classes disagreeable. This paper makes a conclsuion that unfair treatment like bullying decreased student satisfaction and eventually their attendance. They stated that the need is to give more attention to peer-to-peer and student-teacher relationship rather than focusing more on completing the curricular requirements. Doing so would help in putting a barrier to bullying, school violence, and nonattendance. Smith et al. studied the behavioral patterns shown by 406 different middle school victimized students of bullying and concluded that continuing victims Ã¢â¬Å"more often missed schoolÃ¢â¬ than escaped victims. Glew et al. studied how students experienced bullying and what effects bullying had on their attendance record. The research was a cross-sectional study using school data from 2001 to 2002, in West Coast public school district. He found that attendance was the primary predictor of a child being bullied and that there was a dire need for anti-bullying implementable strategies. A similar resear ch has been conducted by Benbenishty et al. who examined the effects of bullying on school attendance in middle school Jewish and Arab students. Rigby also asserts that boys, when bullied, tend to detach themselves from social gatherings and become reserved.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Summary response waiting for supermanby Dir. Davis Guggenheim - Essay Example I was crying because no one was coming with enough power to save usÃ¢â¬ (Guggenheim). It is also documented that Canada was the co-founder of the Harlem ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Zone. He was successful in managing the private funded institution. According to the director, he intends the film to serve as an education reformer. Guggenheim links this to the Ã¢â¬Å"inconvenient truthÃ¢â¬ which attempted to take part in climate change reform. He concludes that the problem that he may face is the teachers union. The union defends its workers against any dismissals. Later he asserts that the only savior which he may have is the charter school system. Apart from the weltering of socioeconomic reasons, Guggenheim also explains why we are having this mess. Furthermore, he delves into the highly scholastic and even records of the charters. Thus, the real crisis among the American public-school education roots from the relative low pay which the full time teachers get. Thus, he addresses ways of eliminating some of the few incentives which is tenure instead of proposing for a higher pay. According to Guggenheim, his proposal will attract competent teachers. The director frames his film basing on competition. He implies the case where five children await for news about their admission in a charter school. They are not lucky, for instance, Francisco who is a Bronx and a first grader is among the 792 applicants who are eying for the 40 vacancies at Harlem success academy (Guggenheim). Therefore, Ã¢â¬Å"waiting for SupermanÃ¢â¬ is a call to the arms. It aims at calling anyone who would like to step up and help fix problems in education. It is also a cry for mercy and help. That is, Ã¢â¬Ësomeone calling to become the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s
Iranian revolution - Research Paper Example As business came up, the standards of living started to rise and the death rates began to decrease due to improvements made in the local hospitals.Pahlevi Shah introduced westernization program in the country and this to some extent help in the economic development of the country in terms of trade improvement.1 In the year 1941, the Germans wanted to seize the oil fields of Iran as they took advantage of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s poor developments in terms of the economy which made the country weak and could not protect itself from outside threats. However, the Soviet Union and Britain joined forces to protect the oil fields of Iran from German seizure Shah abdicated because of his Allied presence and friendliness to AlexiÃ¢â¬â¢s powers. Muhammad Reza Shah, the son of Pahlevi Shah took over the throne and adopted the policy of pro-Allied. The Iranian government in the year 1945 requested for the withdrawal of occupying troops since it came to word that the Soviet Union forces were in some way encouraging separatist movements in some of the Northern provinces of Iran and in 1946, the troops were withdrawn from the country. The control of the oil industry was the main reason why conflicts arose in Iran in the year 1950. The wealth that was being generated from the oil trade was so huge and this led to a major political crisis in the country since prominent people in the country started fighting for control of the oil industry.2 In 1951, Muhammad Mossadegh was appointed prime minister and his relationship with Shah was not encouraging. They kept on fighting each other and in the 1953, Shah dismissed the prime minister. Mossadegh resisted yielding and this forced Shah to flee to Rome. Riots were experienced for three consecutive days and at last Royalist won back Teheran control and this made Shah to return and Mossadegh to be jailed. Throughout the
Monday, August 26, 2019
Body in the consumer society - Essay Example According to the research findings before 1950s, scholars recognized that adoption of some tactics and strategies enhances a good relationship between the seller and the buyer, these tactics and strategies focused on selling more services and products and had little regard for customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Such strategies meant embracing a Ã¢â¬Ësell-as-much-as-possibleÃ¢â¬â¢ philosophy by companies with no concern on the need to build strong and long-term buyer-seller relationship. Starting in 1950s, firms started realizing that old ways of marketing were becoming unpopular and were not effective. Competition in the markets and across industries was growing stiffer and companies were challenged to look at the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s side of transaction particularly to improve the effectiveness of their marketing tactics and strategies. This brought the famous marketing concept that suggests that key factor in successful marketing entails understanding customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and seeking ways o f fulfilling them. The concept advocates that the first step should involve identifying the need of customers and then engaging in the process of production of the desired product or services and then marketing the products. This marketing concept has continued to be the root for the current marketing ideas and efforts. In the contemporary society, individualÃ¢â¬â¢s identity is deemed a construct of his or her consumption not only due to the non-physical and physical objects that an individual consumes but also due to the productsÃ¢â¬â¢ symbolic nature.... 187). In the contemporary society, individualÃ¢â¬â¢s identity is deemed a construct of his or her consumption not only due to the non-physical and physical objects that an individual consumes but also due to the productsÃ¢â¬â¢ symbolic nature. Some of the issues that have been linked to identity in the marketing include the body and especially the embodied self. Current marketing ideas have been linked with creation of identity whereby consumer buying behaviour has been related to the body, which includes the recent body modifications like cosmetic surgery and body art. One of the most popular body adornments that have long history in the body-related consumer behaviour is tattooing. Despite the growing practice in tattooing, there has been little attention among consumer researchers. Very few researchers have focused on tattooing as an industry in the service market. This study classifies tattooing as one of the service industries given that tattooing has service providers, clie nts, and it involves transactional business since it is a practice that is paid for. This study will therefore provide significant contribution by examine tattooing as one of the current ideas in marketing. This study seeks to identify the uniqueness of the object purchased in tattooing, in terms of practice and concept. The study will explore the factors influencing consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ choice in tattooing, nature of consumer experience as well as the enduring relationships (Stern 1995, p. 165). Body in the consumer culture Body can be consumed in two forms; one is the body as a canvass and in body modification like in tattooing, which has become an important part of service industry. The other one is dead body, which is also
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Health Care Managmeant - Personal Statement Example This suggests the need to comprehend that the health care management realms are usually seen with a skeptical eye because there is immense progress that can take place at any given time, provided there are proper funding measures undertaken by the Army as well as other institutions which are running the health care management domains. The nature of this change has to be incremental but at times it is in a one-step process as well. The magnitude of this change is one that overtakes the last incremental changes which were done earlier and which shall replace the old ones in an instant (Savage, 2007). This is required so that the stakeholders can heave a sigh of relief with regards to the building up of proper management realms, which would essentially dictate the way the people receive health care which is a mandatory requirement on their part. The planning stages of change incorporation would mean that the organization is ready to go out of its domains and bring about the significant pointers which shall bear success for the people, the processes and the institutions in entirety. References Savage, G., 2007. A retrospective on access to health care. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 20(6)
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Factors Of Selecting A Destination - Coursework Example Issues concerning the safety of tourists are as engrossing as they are profound. Most studies that examine the relationship between tourism, terrorism and political stability likewise yield issues that arise due to war and crime. The inquiry remains, notwithstanding, whether these studies shed sufficient light on the current understanding of how global tourism survives in political violence or terrorism. Without any doubt, Ã¢â¬Å"even its active and valuable economic impact does not shield global tourism from the vile force of terrorismÃ¢â¬ (Buhalis et al., 2006, p.33). While many natural or human-caused events can altogether effect the growth of tourism, security issues, and political turmoil scare potential tourists. The relationship between tourism and terrorism involves many aspects: possible interventions to curb security risks, effects of terrorism on tourism demand, and motives of targeting certain tourists. The trepidation of unexpected terrorist activities is not new, but rather the attention it has commanded traces back to ten years ago. In recent events, Ã¢â¬Å"the 1991 Persian Gulf War and other related global worldwide terrorism refocused consideration on the subjectÃ¢â¬ (SÃ ¶nmez, 1998, p.1). On various occasions, terrorist assaults have been experienced in other parts of the world. These violence activities have pushed the tourism and travel industry to come up with travel paradigm shifts hence making tourism security a fundamental consideration for all tourists. Vital inquiries remain: how do places characterized political difficulties handle the negative image? How does the tourism industry at large deal with the emergence of political turmoil? By what method would governments use to curb terrorism and political instability? Subsequently, this paper endeavors to discuss factors to be considered by tourists while selecting a destination. Politics is a major risk
Friday, August 23, 2019
Social work and human services - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that child welfare is a social work component that demands genuine compassion and concern for children. In this regard, it can be regarded as a profession that requires passion and dedication to facilitate the attainment of set goals. As part of the coursework, the author acquired a deeper understanding of social work and human services and learned to apply theoretical and practical aspects of assimilating social work concepts. Social theory and practice have enabled me to develop a more holistic view of children, especially their psychology and needs. As a result, the author has an excellent grasp of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs as well as how and why they can be met. Through his comprehension of social theory, the researcher has become inspired to use conceptual rationales to propagate social development by protecting perhaps the most valuable members of the society: children. Through discussions with current practitioners, the author has beco me well-versed in the practical demands of child welfare social work. For example, although he has always been relatively introverted, professionals in the field reliably informed me that the greatest satisfaction will come from getting out of his comfort zone and taking help to children. After interacting with current practitioners for a considerable period of time, the author learned and accepted that without traveling and actively seeking help for troubled, abused, or neglected children, his sphere of influence would be significantly reduced.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Employee Motivational Theories and Concepts Essay Numerous theories on the subject of employee motivation have been developed and published for the better part of this century. While early employers thought of their workers as just another input into the production of goods and services (Lindner, 1998), employees were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with working conditions and malevolent management. As post-war, labor tensions mounted in the 1920s, employers needed to change their approach to employee relations if they were to avoid costly, and sometimes violent, labor strikes. Early motivational theories set the foundation for the development of 20th century concepts, including the move to get Ã¢â¬Å"GoogledÃ¢â¬ and motivational techniques based on business strengths found in the corporate toolbox. Early Motivational Theories George Elton Mayo, an Australian-born psychologist and Harvard Professor, began significant research in 1927 in an attempt to demonstrate that employees, if appropriately motivated, are more productive and can achieve greater return through appropriate human relationship management techniques (Trahair Zaleznik, 2005). This research, referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"Hawthorne Studies,Ã¢â¬ found that employees are not only motivated by financial gain, but also by the behavior and attitude of their supervisors. During these studies, the employees responded positively to the mere fact that they were receiving attention from their supervisor as a result of the experiment. In his article, Gordon Marshall (1998) noted that Ã¢â¬Å"the term Ã¢â¬ËHawthorne effectÃ¢â¬â¢ is now widely used to refer to the behavior-modifying effects of being the subject of social investigation, regardless of the context of the investigation. More generally, the researchers concluded that supervisory style greatly affected worker productivityÃ¢â¬ (para. 1) and that Ã¢â¬Å"enhanced productivity therefore depends on management sensitivity to, and manipulation of, the Ã¢â¬Ëhuman relationsÃ¢â¬â¢ of productionÃ¢â¬ (para. 2). This represented a dramatic paradigm shift for employers and theorists alike. Subsequent to the conclusion of the infamous Hawthorne Studies, five primary motivational theories have developed that have increased the understanding of what truly motivates employees. They are MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s need-hierarchy, HertzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s two-factor system, VroomÃ¢â¬â¢s expectancy theory, AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s equity theory, and SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s reinforcement theory. Maslow identified that employees, in general, have five primary levels of needs that include psychological (e.g. air, food, shelter), safety (e.g. security, order, stability), belongingness (e.g. love, family, relationships), esteem (e.g. achievement, status, responsibility), and self-actualization (McLeod, 2007). Maslow further noted that, in order to provide motivation, the lower levels would need to be satisfied before one progressed to the higher levels. Hertzberg classified motivation into two, distinct factors. He believed that intrinsic factors (or motivators) produce job satisfaction through achievement and recognition while extrinsic (or hygiene) factors produce dissatisfaction. He identified extrinsic factors to be associated with compensation and perceived job security, or lack thereof. Vroom theorized that demonstrated effort would lead to performance which, in turn, would lead to reward (either positive or negative). The more positive the reward the more highly motivated the employee would be. To the contrary, negative rewards would result in a lesser motivated employee. Adams found that employees want to ensure that there is a sense of fairness and equity between themselves and their co-workers. He believed that equity is achieved when employees are contributing, in terms of input and output, at the same rate. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was likely the most simplistic, He established that employees will repeat behaviors that lead to positive outcomes and eliminate or minimize behaviors that lead to negative outcomes. He conceived that, if managers positively reinforce desired behavior, it would lead to positive outcomes and that managers should negatively reinforce employee behavior that leads to negative outcomes (Lindner, 1998). James R. Lindner, Professor of Management and Research at Ohio State University, has conducted extensive research on this topic. In his paper Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding Employee Motivation,Ã¢â¬ he further extrapolated on the five theories, providing a comparative analysis, and offering a summary definition that focuses on the psychological process and Ã¢â¬Å"inner forceÃ¢â¬ associated with the accomplishment of personal and organizational goals (Lindner, 1998). 20th Century Concepts In addition to studying popular theories associated with employee motivation, Lindner (1998) includes the methodology and outcomes of an independent study, conducted at Ohio State University, that sought to rank the importance of ten motivating factors. The results of this study were compelling; with Ã¢â¬Å"interesting workÃ¢â¬ ranking as number one over other more commonly identified motivators, such as wages and job security. In comparing these results with MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs, among others, he found that the results are mixed, with the highest ranked factor (interesting work) being one of self-actualization and contrary to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s findings (Lindner, 1998). This presents a divergent result that challenges MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s assumption that the lower needs must be satisfied before a person can achieve their potential and self-actualize (McLeod, 2007, para.16). This does not negate MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s work, but rather demonstrates that a natural evolution may have taken place with the modern workforce due to the progression of motivation strategies. This is a credit to the work of early theorists, and a call to arms for those that continue this research. Get Googled But history has yet to definitively answer the question, Ã¢â¬Å"what is the best method(s) to motivate employees?Ã¢â¬ The imprecise answer continues to be: it depends. Many successful organizations incorporate a variety of programs aimed at motivating their employees, based on their specific population. Google Inc., for example, is leading the way to restructure management so that employees can streamline creative ideas that produce blockbuster new products. They are rewarding employees with perks like onsite swimming pools, allowing employees to bring their pets to work, providing onsite child care, and all the free food employees want (Ã¢â¬Å"How Google Inc. Rewards Its Employees,Ã¢â¬ 2010, Thinking Leaders, para.1). While this may not be realistic for every organization, there is something to be said about the fact that Google, Inc. is consistently ranked by Fortune magazine as the best place in the U.S. to work. However there are things that a company can do to motivate their employees that are low or no cost and likely already exist in their corporate toolbox. The Corporate Toolbox Most successful organizations pride themselves on their ability to promote their product or service to achieve the desired level of profitability. They develop strategic plans, set production goals and persuade their customers that they are best of the best in their field. They are advertisers and peddlers of wares. So what does this have to do with motivation? Robert Hershey, Director of James E. Rogers College of Law at the University of Arizona and contributing author to the Journal of Managerial Psychology, contends that there is a significant correlation between an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to successfully promote their business and thrive at motivating their employees. He notes that Ã¢â¬Å"we do not need one more theory of motivation; we need better insight into the psychology of advertising. We can take some tried-and-true product advertising techniques that have been found to be effective and use them in a human resources and management context. But before we do that, the point must be made that, as a practical matter, our vocabulary and attention require a shift from the motivation jargon of needs, expectancy, two-factor theories, etc., to an emphasis on communications practices, because persuasion requires the transmission of informationÃ¢â¬ (Hershey, 1993). If Hershey is correct, then an emphasis on communication and inclusion would create an environment ripe for employee motivation. One could also argue that, if communication is key, allowing input and empowered decision making is the next logical step to producing a motivated employee. Carolyn Wiley, Professor of Business at Roosevelt University, concurs with this notion and provides the following supporting statements in her article Ã¢â¬Å"Creating an Environment for Employee MotivationÃ¢â¬ : When employees have an opportunity to provide input, this increases their survival rate and their sense of commitment. In many very small companies, a natural sense of owners hip often develops among the employees. However, as companies grow, feelings of ownership and commitment start to decline. To increase commitment as the organization grows, managers must change how they define who retains control. Shared decision making is essential both to company success and employee survival. Workers generally do not resist their own ideas and decisions. Rather, they are motivated to fulfill them. (Wiley, 1992, para.14) While this may seem threatening to traditional leaders, it should not be viewed as surrendering control. Employees that are empowered through inclusion are ambassadors for organizational success. It is only through mutual success that both the employee and company thrive. It seems so simple, but eludes even the most progressive of companies. Most organizations are more inclined to spend thousands of dollars creating recognition programs, building home office environments, developing bonus structures and hosting employee appreciation events rather than recognizing that most employees are merely looking to be valued. The same attention that motivated the Hawthorne workers applies to the modern employee who just wants to contribute and receive credit for their effort. Conclusion There is certainly compelling evidence to indicate that employee motivation comes in many forms. Whether one places their belief in the theoretical assumptions of a Maslow or Hertzberg, their financial backing in the creation of a Google-esque environment, or capitalize on their organizational strengths to communicate and persuade, there is clear agreement that the ability to successfully motivate employees is essential for corporate success and sustainability. The concept of positive human relation management has finally taken its place at the forefront of organizational strategies and, with it, the evolution of employee motivation. References Trahair, R. Zaleznik, A. (2005). Elton Mayo: The Humanist Temper. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers Marshall, G. (1998). A Dictionary of Sociology; Hawthorne Studies. Retrieved from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-Hawthornestudies.html Lindner, James R. (1998). Journal of Extension; Understanding Employee Motivation. Retrieved from http://www.joe.org/joe/1998june/rb3.php McLeod, S. A. (2007). Simply Psychology; Maslow Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html How Google Inc. rewards its employees. (2010). Retrieved from Thinking Leaders website: http://www.thinkingleaders.com/archives/517 Hershey, R. (1993). A practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s view of motivation. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 8(3), 10-10. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.arbor.edu:80/login?url=http://search.proquest. com/docview/ 215865845?accountid=13998 Wiley, C. (1992). Create an environment for employee motivation. HR Focus, 69(6), 14-14. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.arbor.edu:80/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/ docview/206781828?ac countid=13998
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Implications of the Study Essay The study of Willard and Luker actually notes the factor that contributes to the capabilities of the health institutions and their staff in handling the preferences of their patients especially that of the issues regarding EOL or the End of Life situations. People are usually concerned on their preferences with which they are to entrust their health with either for medication or simply for therapy. The issues that were particularly dealt with in the journal presented by Willard and Luker were pointing to the capabilities of the nurses and other medical staff officers present in the hospitals to make their patients feel the assurance that they are to be given the best service and care that they are due as clients of the medical industries. From this particular article, it could be noted that the role of nurses as caregivers in the medical institutions play a great role in the process of keeping up with the reputation of the medical industries. Their skills and their natural want of serving the values of their patients the best way that they can involves not only their willingness of becoming the best in the filed but also the aim of becoming a great help to the society that they are particularly serving. Implications of the Study What the article points out as part of the study is that the nurses have a great part in understanding the needs of their patients. This particularly coincides with the ideal practices of nursing as per noted through the writings and philosophies of Faye Abdelah. Ã¢â¬Å"A nurse is a person who nourishes, fosters, and protectsÃ¢â¬âa person who is prepared to care for the sick, injured, and aged. Ã¢â¬ (Nursing in TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s WorldÃ¢â¬âChallenges, Issues, and Trends, 2) UNSELFISHNESS, though essential, is not enough to make a proficient nurse. Good nurses also need extensive training and a breadth of experience. One essential requirement is from one to four years or more of study and practical training. But what qualities make a good nurse? Faye Glenn AbdellahÃ¢â¬â¢s book on Ã¢â¬Å"Patient-Centered Approach to NursingÃ¢â¬ (1960) answers those queries basing from real life experiences and practical application of the said nursing theory. As reported in a survey made by the Awake magazine regarding the real qualities making up a good nurse, many answered almost the same ideas about the issue. Carmen Gilmartin, of Spain puts it this way: Ã¢â¬Å"The doctor heals, but the nurse cares for the patient. This often requires building up patients that have been damaged both inside and outside when, for example, they are informed that they have a chronic disease or will face imminent death. You have to be a mother to the sick person. Ã¢â¬ It is really true that aside from Abdellah , many nurses around the world believes that being able to empathize with the patients that the nurses are caring for. How is this so? The theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s or the idealism of AbdellahÃ¢â¬â¢s scope includes the nurses working with children and other older patients dealing with either patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ slightly affected with illnesses or those who are already dealing with terminal cases. The whole idea of the theory lies on how nurse- patient relationship should always be given attention to. Not only because itÃ¢â¬â¢s a protocol by the hospital or whosoever but also because it should be an innate character of a nurse to feel what the patient feels. Its content includes the process and application of the nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ empathizing with their patients to be able to give them not only the kind of medication or cure they need as said by the doctor but also the kind of cure they want. Application of the Theory on the Article Reviewed: Significance: The said approach on patient-centered service in and out of the hospital services is much significant especially to those patients who are usually ill or to those who have terminal diseases who at times need to stay in the hospitals for long times. It is very true that the patient-nurse relationship must be mutual and peaceful to be able to gain best results for both parties. Internal Consistency: This approach has been amazingly working well for the hospitals and health organizations that apply it. Doctors and nurses who are able to coordinate well with each other and thus able to attend to their patientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and wants are the ones who usually gets the best result. One encyclopedia defines nursing as Ã¢â¬Å"the process by which a patient is helped by a nurse to recover from an illness or injury, or to regain as much independence as possible. Ã¢â¬ (Encarta) Of course, much is involved in that process. It is more than just the performance of routine tests, such as checking the pulse and the blood pressure. The nurse plays an integral role in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s recovery. According to The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine, Ã¢â¬Å"the nurse is more concerned with the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s overall reaction to the disorder than with the disorder itself, and is devoted to the control of physical pain, the relief of mental suffering, and, when possible, the avoidance of complications. Ã¢â¬ In addition, the nurse offers Ã¢â¬Å"understanding care, which involves listening with patience to anxieties and fears, and providing emotional support and comfort. Ã¢â¬ And when a patient is dying, this source notes, the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s role is Ã¢â¬Å"to help the patient meet death with as little distress and as much dignity as possible. Ã¢â¬ (145) Parsimony: This approach doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t require much of the funds. Instead, investing on the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s desirable traits has been the key to reaching the goals of giving the patients an A+ service during their recovery. Testability: This approach has been widely tested by different hospitals and health organizations. Some had even made extra steps to achieve perfection in application. Some went to the homes of possible patients to take not of their medical preferences with regards to their religious and cultural beliefs. It also included health statistics of the patients in order to modify their medical records. These steps had been proven effective and stress reducing for the nurses when the time comes when they already need to attend to the said patients. Empirical Adequacy: Every organization and hospital who tries to apply this approach to patients would agree that everything is perfect with it. It relieves both the pain of the patient and gives the nurses a better work environment, as they are able to meet the expectations of both their patients and the doctors they assist. Pragmatic Adequacy: Record shows that actual results from the application of this approach are rather desirable and convincing to be successful. It made everything and everyone workable with and every patient satisfied with the medications they receive. As with other jobs, considerable education and training are required to be a good nurse. It also takes courage, and a real desire to help fellow humans. Keeping physically fit, too, is important, due to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s being exposed to communicable diseases. But a good nurse will especially have sympathy for patients, and give of herself to furnish their needs. AbdellahÃ¢â¬â¢s book on Patient-Centered approach has been truly proven by herself by being a nurse and an aid to many that suffer from different illness. Making it more practical and approval worthy that this approach to patients is indeed effective. However it may be, nurses are always reminded to continue having a good heart for their patients as it always works. PART B: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Problem Definition The study of Willard and Luker places a certain implication on the ways by which the nurses intend to perform their tasks as healthcare professionals. Their enthusiasm in making it possible for the clients[ the patients] to receive the best possible service that they deserve naturally, especially considering the fact that they are in need of care. IT is mostly undeniable that the nurses are expected to handle their profession in a more careful way considering their patients needs and demands all the time. As their clients, patients have the right to demands service from the nurses, this is especially when they are needing special care because of their exceptional health situation. People who are in their EOL stages are usually demanding, trying to get the attention of others for the sake of attending to their needs. Passion always pays in this particular situation. Most likely, the patients who are in need of special care when they are undergoing the EOL stage are also most appreciative of the people staying up with them. From the study that has been presented by Willard and Luker, it could be observed that attending to these particular needs actually increase the level of considerable reputation for the medical industries. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Literature Review It could be observed that the literatures used by the researchers as basis of their primary claims about the issue were indeed authoritative, thus giving the research a stronger voice in being valid for actual application in the future. Most likely, the ability of the researchers to find the right research materials to cite within the paper made the research even more powerful in terms of being constantly aligned with what is theoretically right and what is actually practiced by the hospital staffs in real life. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Research Design With the utilization of grounded theory, the researchers of this particular study were able to make a greater use for such controlled details that were given to them through observable informations in actual situations that are concerned with nursing and the issue that is being tackled within the said study. Applying it to actual nursing practice requires deeper comprehension of the issue. To develop the science of the nursing field and its general application in the health service of the society, further research and development are needed. In this aspect of nursing research, different new approaches and concepts are discover and can be incorporated in the general field of healthcare application thus, promoting the quality of the said service. Because of this, the said two concepts namely the aspect of research and its application are indeed important for the field of nursing service. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sampling Protocol The researchers particularly utilized the best sample population available to strengthen their study. The said samples include three nurse practitioners, two research nurses, eleven specific CNSÃ¢â¬â¢s, nine palliative care CNSÃ¢â¬â¢s, and four CNS with combined tumor-specific and palliative care roles. These samples helped the researchers in understanding the field of nursing in a much deeper sense of responsibility scale measurement. The samples and their experiential background on the issue actually helped the researchers see the situation in an certain actualized level of understanding. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Data collection Strategies Aside from the literary based researches, the interview based observations made it easier for the researchers to create opinionated claims thereby making the research more acquainted with the literature review that the researchers themselves previously presented in their paper. The integration of the research together with the survey results made it possible for the researchers to measure both the possibilities and the limitations that their topic has upon application in the actual field of medical health assistance among hospitals. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Data Analysis Strategies To analyze the data, a qualitative process of understanding the gathered informations could be noted to have a huge implication on the success of the research. With the measurement of validity and reality based understanding of the matter, the research of Luker and Willard made it easier for the readers to understand the yielded information from the literature as well as the survey based analysis. The analysis of the data that the researchers used actually helped the outside readers who have no idea of the topic to have a better understanding of the connection of the study with the actual application of nursing practices. Most likely, it is undeniable that the people involved in understanding the research naturally made a clear opinionated view with regards the presentations of the researchers with regards the actuality of the study and how far the efficiency of the research applies well in the efficiency of the healthcare institutionsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance for their clients, the patients. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation Maintaining and promoting the healthcare quality of the people is one of the most important concerns of the society. People indeed like to live healthy away from any ailment and disease and stay in this state for the longest possible lifestyle. Because of this, significant efforts and resources are invested in the healthcare nursing field to promote the stability of the said healthcare practice and its continuous development. One of this concept evidentiary manifestation is the fieldÃ¢â¬â¢s research aspect. The value of nursing is significant for the society as this greatly involve their health promotion and assistance to their medical needs thus, this fieldÃ¢â¬â¢s development through research must be established as one of the primary concern. Without this field, societyÃ¢â¬â¢s healthcare needs will certainly not be addressed. However, without the continuous innovative development of this field, the aspect of healthcare nursing will also not be able to properly cater to the contemporary needs of the society alongside its newly discovered diseases and others. To cope up with these modern concerns, the nursing society together with the concerned citizens and the health practitioner field devote their time, efforts, knowledge and resources to further develop the nursing field through research to maintain the relevance of the value of nursing for the society themselves. As a vital part also of the general field of nursing healthcare, the research also demonstrate the importance of practitioners of the nursing field in an independent concern from the multidisciplinary team. Research through experimentation procedure will explore the significance of the nursing role in each medical procedures and in the healthcare service itself. In addition, most researches are also solely focused on developing the healthcare practice alone as this as this is viewed to be more related in the aspect of caring for the patients. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ethical Values and Concerns The ethical values in this case would naturally be involved in the process of gaining the results from the target samples. The results are to be derived not only upon observation but upon question and answer process of evaluation of the job that the staff are undergoing. It could not be denied that gaining these results meant that the sample population must be met in personal by the researchers. Through the considerable thought that the researchers placed upon the fact that the target sample are working and have responsibilities towards their patients, the said individuals were given their own choice on when or where they are to answer the survey. Through this, the researchers were the once who adjusted to the convenience of the sample population. It Is undeniable that through this process, the researchers were able to take control of the ethical measures that they are expected to carry on throughout the process. Part C: Conclusion Healthcare is concerned and mainly focused on the betterment and the preservation of the life of an individual who has a certain medical condition or ailment preventing him or her from being healthy. Because it is concern with humanity and life, most of the aspects in healthcare are greatly attributed to ethics and morality thus rendering this field to be very controversial and debatable. Many aspects of healthcare, especially its field of administration for people who have damaging illnesses, are greatly regarded as a question of morality. This idea is mainly because of certain cases where the healthcare decision regarding the condition of the patient becomes contradictory to the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s will and/or the medical decision of the physician involved. Thus, the medical procedures often become morally questionable because of the conflicting desires and the substantiality of the consent of the people concerned in the situation. This is primarily the reason why the study analyzed herein could be noted beneficial for the actual nursing practice application. The study of Willard and Luker clearly points out that nurse-patient relationship could be enhanced through the behavioral adjustments that are to be taken into consideration by the nurses themselves. It is undeniable that the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s importance to the medical industry places a strong implication on the basic practices of ethical healthcare provisions. Patients in their EOL stages need to realize that they are being cared for. Not only that, it should also be noted that aside from EOL patients, nurses have to attend to a wide variety of patients who have different health issues that they need to deal with. Moat often than not, it is the realization of the nurses with regards their primary responsibility that holds the capability of the medical industries to cater to the needs of their clients, their patients. Reference: Carole Willard and Karen Luker. (2006). Challenge to End OF Life Care in the Acute Hospital Setting. University of Manchester.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Grass Silage Quality In Malaysia There were different management systems been practiced in the livestock industry in Malaysia. The intensive system was widely practiced, particularly in the pig and poultry sector and as for the ruminant industry; it varies from extensive to intensive system. The majority of feedstuffs used in rations for pig and poultry were imported (Anon, 2002), although to some extent locally produced ingredients were also included in the ration. The imported ingredients range from cereal grains, vegetable and animal proteins such as soybean meal, corn gluten meal, fish meal and meat and bone meal, mineral sources and various micro-ingredients like vitamins, minerals and other additives used to improve feed efficiency and growth. Maize and soybean meal were the major imported ingredients. Locally available raw materials make up about 30 percent of the total feed ingredients in Malaysia (Anon, 2002). However, the use of locally produced ingredient depends on supply, cost and also quality. The locally produced ingredients were tapioca and fishmeal. However, the amount produced was not sufficient to meet the requirements of the local feed industry (Anon, 2002). The milling factories and the by-products of oil extraction that produce soybean meal, wheat bran, pollard, and rice bran were always available and usually included in poultry and pigs feed. The ruminant industry depends primarily on locally available feedstuffs, for example palm kernel cake, oil palm frond, palm oil sludge, and soy waste, with only some supplementation provided by imported ingredients. The majorÃ local materials used were crop residues and other agro-industrial by-products such as rice bran, copra cake, palm kernel cake, oil palm frond, sago, tapioca and broken rice (Anon, 2002). 2.2 Source of Fodder and Forages for Ruminants 2.2.1 Oil palm frond (OPF) Oil palm was one of the commercial plantation crops other than rubber, oil palm, cocoa and pineapple in Malaysia. Since the 1970s, Malaysia had been the largest producer and exporter of palm oil products in the world. Oil palm produces the most abundant biomass with oil palm fronds have been shown to be a very promising source of roughage for ruminants. The average crude protein value of OPF was about 7% (Asada et al., 1991; Wong and Zahari, 1992; Dahlan, 1992a). However, the average crude protein (CP) composition of 11.0% in the leaflets suggests its potential value for livestock feeding as its CP contents was far above the critical 6.25% CP level required to maintain normal intake by ruminants (Playne, 1972). OPF leaflets had a higher CP value and crude fat content than petiols (Oshio et al., 1990). However, Akmar et al. (1996) reported that OPF contained a considerable amount of lignin and silica which could reduce its nutritive value when fed to ruminants. Cellulose levels were usually lower than hemicellulose in both petioles and leaflets. Although OPF was available throughout the year, it must be collected and pilled up and also used readily or even chopped immediately within two days after pruning. Collection of OPF incurs high costs in which accounted the costs of pelleting and transport. OPF tends to become mouldy during storage due to high water contents of more than 55% (Dahlan, 2000). In order to prevent mould, drying was essential in which also incurred high processing costs. In addition, OPF contains very low protein (5.0-7.0%) and OPF becomes mouldy if not processed (Dahlan, 2000). Mouldy feedstuffs may contain fungal toxicins and were less palatable and have low nutritive value. Low protein content and unbalanced mineral content resulted in low digestibility and low absorption or availability of nutrients for maintenance and production (Dahlan, 2000). Consideration also have to be given to the high silica content in OPF and the slow rate of fermentation of fibre, which reduce VFA and the role of end products of fibre digestion in relation to the over all efficiency of energy utilization. These limitations can be overcome by physical or mechanical processing such as immediate chopping, grinding and drying, pre-digestion of fibre through chemical and biological treatment and stimulation of rumen microbes by supplementation with energy and protein rich ingredients or with urea and molasses and supplementation with essential minerals like Ca, P and S to balance up the nutrient content of OPF (Dahlan, 2000). 2.2.2 Rice Straw as a Feed for Ruminants Traditionally, rice straw was fed during the periods of feed shortage, but the nutrients for maintenance does not provided adequately. Studies had been shown that buffaloes (Wanapat et al., 1984; Wongsrikeao and Wanapat, 1985), cattle (McLennan et al., 1981; Wanapat et al., 1982, 1984; Suriyajantratong and Wilaipon, 1985) and sheep (Vijchulata and Sanpote, 1982) that were with fed straw alone lose body weight. The straw was usually fed in the long form, but in some parts of Asia, notably India, it may be chopped for limiting selection and wastage of the feeds given (Doyle et al., 1986). There were times in which the amount of straw collected and stored does not enable farmers to feed their animals ad libitum. In these feeding systems, salt was sometimes provided, but other mineral supplements were not given. Other forages offered with rice straw to stall-fed ruminants were practiced by many Asian farmers. The quantitative information about how much of these forages were fed and how frequently they were given was of little information. The most common feeds available with rice straw were the roadside native grasses, while other important forages were cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), gliricidia (Gliricidia maculata), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and sesbania (Sesbania grandiflora) (Doyle et al., 1986). Also in specific areas forages from many other trees, crops and water weeds, including acacia (Acacia arabica), banana (Musa spp.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), and water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), were utilized (Doyle et al., 1986). 2.3 Grass Production in Malaysia Over the last 20 years, the pasture research team in Malaysian Agriculture Research Development Institute (MARDI) had introduced several hundreds of improved tropical pasture accessions, and promising species and genera have been identified (Wong et al. l982, Wong and Mohd Najib, 1988). The Digitaria genus, Brachiaria humidicola and B. dictyoneura were adapted to the bris soils; B. humidicola and Tripsacum andersonii (Guatemala grass) were important on acid sulphate soil and in areas with a high water table; while on peat, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was outstanding. Other promising grasses including Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) were able to perform in any of the sedentary and alluvial soils and in all agroclimatic zones. In the highlands, Napier, Guinea, Signal, Guatemala and Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) and Nandi setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv Nandi) had good production records. They had shown vigorous growth and seed sett ing. In the mid 1970s, improved pastures were established as part of the establishment of eight commercial ranch operations (9,682 ha); six farms in Peninsular Malaysia, and one each in Sabah and Sarawak, developed by the National Livestock Authority (Majuternak), with the aim of increasing commercial livestock production (Wong and Chen, 1998). Current total areas of ranch pastures were approximately 25,000 ha in Peninsular Malaysia, 5,000 ha in Sabah and 20,000 ha in Sarawak (Wong and Chen, 1998). These pastures faced some problems of persistence (Chen, 1985) in which they were mainly correlated with the requirement of improvement of the poor tropical soils. The soils had high saturation of aluminium (60-80%) and low soil pH 4.0-5.5 (Wong and Chen, 1998). Break-even on the investment for ranching of animals on tropical pastures in Malaysias circumstances takes about 10-12 years due to the intense initial capital input and high interest rate of bank loans (Clayton, 1983). Unfavourable cli mate in Malaysia is also a problem that hinders the development of tropical pastures for seed production in the poor seed setting of most of the promising pasture species (Wong and Chen, 1998). However, there were a few had been identified for small scale production of seed for local needs and such species were the Ruzi grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) and Guinea grass (Wong and Chen, 1998). 2.4 Napier Grass (Pennisetum Purpureum ) Napier grass or scientifically called as Pennisetum purpureum was a species of grass native to the tropical grasslands of Africa. It was a tall perennial plant that may reach a height of six meter, with razor-sharp leaves 30-90 cm long and up to three centimetre broad (Duke, 1983) and producing 15 tillers at maturity. Its natural habitat was in riverbed areas, and able to grow up to 10 m high (EilittÃ ¤ et al., 2004) but it was also a drought-tolerant (Bassam, 2010) and where it grew well in drier areas with a drier periods not more than four months. It had a very high productivity, both as a high protein forage grass for livestock and as a biofuel crop which might be 50-55 t/ha/year DM (Bassam, 2010). It can be grown along with fodder trees along field boundaries or along contour lines or terrace risers to help control erosion. It can be intercropped with crops such as legumes and fodder trees, or as a pure stand. The advantage of Napier grass was that it propagates easily. This fo dder is very important for smallholder farm (Goldson, 1977) which greatly contributed to dairy cattle feeding in Kenya and CP content of 7.6% produced by 10-40t ha-1 DM (Wouters, 1987). In the highlands, napier, guinea, signal, Guatemala and kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) and Nandi setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv Nandi) were the promising forages with good production record. Napier grass was best suited to high rainfall areas, but as drought-tolerant grass it can also grow well in drier areas in which are suitable for Malaysias climate. Napier grass can propagates easily and has high growth and yield potentials. Its soft stem makes it easy to cut, the young leaves and stems are tender which makes very palatable for livestock, and the Napier grass is suitable for feeding ruminant as cut and carry system. 2.4.1 Production, characterization, and nutritional quality of Napier grass The general fodder grass species used in the S.E. Asian region was mainly the tall-growing types such as Pennisetum purpureum (Napier or Elephant grass), Panicum maximum (Guinea) and Tripsacum laxum (Guatemala grass). Napier had a yield record of up to 84800 kg DM/year when fertilized with 897 kg N/ha per year and cut practices were done every 90 days with annual rainfall of 2000 mm (Vicente-Chandler et al., 1959). The highest yielding fodder and most promising fodder was Napier grass (Anindo Potter, 1994) which had a dry matter yields surpassing many of tropical grasses (Humphreys, 1994; Skerman Riveros, 1990). Napier grass had tender, young leaves and stems, which was very palatable for livestock and grew very fast. The young and immature Napier grass was highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility increased as lignifications of the plant material increased with grass height and maturity. Attempts have been made to make hay out of Napier grass (Brown Chavulimu, 1985; Manyuchi et al., 1996) but the succulent stems limit the rate of drying (Snijders et al., 1992a) and with excess drying the stems may become hard and brittle and less palatable to livestock. The cell wall, composed primarily of the structural carbohydrates cellulose and hemicellulose, was the most important factor affecting forage utilization (Van Soest, 1994) as it comprises the major fraction of forage DM and its extent of degradation by the microflora had important implications on forage digestibility and intake (Paterson et al., 1994). The structural polysaccharides composed primarily of cellulose and hemicelluloses were primary restrictive determinants of nutrient intake. The digestibility of forage in the rumen was related to the proportion and extent of lignification (Van Soest, 1994). Chemical composition and digestible DM may be poor indicators of the nutritive value of Napier grass because it d oes not provide the profile of absorbed nutrients. 2.4.2 Effect of cutting interval on nutritive value of grass During the wet season, the tropical forage species grow very fast, with forage yields often exceeding animal requirements. If not cut and fed, it will continue to grow, producing very long and fibrous material, low in energy and protein (Moran, 1945). If this forage was harvested and successfully stored as silage at the same stage as it is cut for producing milk, then it could be fed back during the following dry season. Although the quality of the forage will be slightly lower than its fresh state (10-15% lower in good ensiling conditions), it will still be better quality than many of the forages only available for dry season feeding. Conversely, in some locations, the silage can supplement other good quality but very slow-growing forages. Forage harvested for silage should be at the same age of maturity (its optimum), as if feeding fresh (Moran, 1945). Napier grass should be harvested following 30 to 40 days re-growth in the wet season, at about 75 to 150 cm in height, or optimum quality and for ease of transporting to livestock in smallholdings. At this stage, the Napier grass will have about two to three nodes showing on the stem. The Napier grass was harvested every 45 days during the wet season and contained 12% dry matter (DM), 7.5% crude protein (CP) and 62.2% NDF (Moran, 1945). 2.5 Grass Silage The usage of silage was very essential in ruminant nutrition (Akyildiz, 1986). Silage, which produced by ensiling method, enables feed conservation in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Grass silage was extremely variable in terms of feeding value and preservation quality. OMara et al., (1998) indicated that supplementing grass silage with other forages improves dairy cow performance. Feed sources such as molasses, cereal grains and salt are usually added to silage for ensiling practices and to increase those forges in respect of increasing microbial fermentation and eliminating microbial toxins (Akyildiz, 1986; Jacobs et al., 1995; Kaya et al., 2009). There are four identifiable roles played by ensilaging the roughage (Cowan, 1999). Primarily, these were to build up reserve of feeds for utilisation during periods of feed deficiency; to have regular supply of feed to increase productivity of animals; to utilise surplus fodder for better management and utilisation and lastly to conserve for use during feed scarcity and additional demand for feed (Cowan, 1999). Silage was also routinely fed to increased productivity of beef and dairy cattle by providing nutrients necessary to nutritionally balance existing diets. Silage usages were pictured to increase in the S.E. Asian region. There were several reasons for this optimism. Stable supply of forage throughout the year was recognised as the key constraint for further development in cattle production in northeast Thailand (Shinoda et al., 1999), and this was generally true for other developing parts of the region. It had been noted that the economic boom of the 1980s and early 1990s have changed the dairy livestock perspective of S. E. Asian farmers and they have become more progressive and farms move from being subsistence to commercialised units (Wong, 1999). Silage making was less dependent on weather especially in areas where the cutting practice of the forage was constrained by the seasonal condition. Usually, there were five steps involves in silage making, harvest forage or collect material; materials transport to the silo; filling of silo; packing and compacting the materials for the exclusion of air to favour anaerobic fermentation; and sealing of silo. The types of silo for ensilaging process and for storing silage were horizontal silo, small vertical cylindrical silos, plastic bags, plastic drums and plastic film wrapping of baled fodder (Chin and Idris 1999). There were also some additional steps in order to make good silage, wilting to reduce moisture (many of silage making in Malaysia do not involve wilting); chopping for easy compaction; use of additives to increase soluble charbohydrate and protein; and use of enzymes to aid fermentation. The main usage of silage is for fodder conservation and to make feed available during t he scarcity of feed supply (Mohd Najib et al. 1993). 2.5.1 Evaluation of Silage Quality Organoleptic criteria were used to assess the silage quality, which employed silage colour, smell and texture. They were practical and do not required references of a laboratory. However, evaluation made using these criteria was subjective and proned to misinterpretation due to a trend toward the use of the larger rather than a smaller number of silage quality categories which results in differences of opinion (Woolford, 1984). Chemical assessments of the principal fermentation products give a straightforward basis to assess the quality of silage. Flieg (1938; 1952), suggests that silage quality was better evaluated according to the relative amounts of lactic, acetic and butyric acids in silage: The higher the proportions of lactic and acetic acids to butyric acid, the higher the score and the better the quality. Carpintero et al. (1969) established a good positive correlation between pH value and ammonia expressed as g kg-1 of the total nitrogen in direct cut-grass and clover silages. According to his study, it was considered critical for the anaerobic stability of silage and the ammonia content would be 111 g kg-1 of the total nitrogen at pH 4.2. Langson et al. (1960) proposed that the classification of grass silage as good, intermediate or poor was according to the levels of pH, lactic acid, ammonia, butyric acid and spore count. The pH level, dry matter (DM) and nutrient contents of grass silage were varies; depending on the kind, vegetation period and additives given (Haigh et al., 1985; More et al., 1986; Rinnie et al., 2002; Cone et al., 1999; Baytol and Muruz, 2003). A study done by Moore et al. (1986), using three different silage sampled of mixed grasses, the DM contents were 34.3, 29.9 and 38.8% respectively, crude protein (CP) contents were 8.12, 9.37, 11.87% respectively and the pH level was 4.6, 4.6, and 4.4 respectively. Another study was done from silage samples made of grass from late vegetation period the CP content and the pH level were 11.3% and 4.10, respectively. Numerous investigators have stressed the importance in the ensiling process of the percentage of dry matter in the green crop. Wilson and Webb (1937) recognized the importance of the sugar content of plants for making silage, and reported values for a number of different species. Some values for sugar have been reported by Archibald (1953), but they were for chopped green crops with added preservatives. Watson and Ferguson (1937) and Allen et al. (1937) have compared composition and digestibility of the green crop and the resulting silage. Peterson et al. (1935) made a study of dry matter, the several forms of nitrogen, and carotene contents in the crop and in the silage. Earlier studies have shown the criteria which indicated the quality (good or poor) in grass silage from the standpoint of organoleptic and laboratory tests were: pH, and content of volatile bases, butyric acid, and lactic acid (Archibald et al., 1954). High values for lactic acid indicate good quality silage; high values for the other three criteria were an indication of poor quality silage, as odour, texture and dry matter losses was concerned. Values for these have been statistically correlated with the following constituents in the green, un-ensiled crop: water, protein, fiber, N-free extract, and total sugar. Effluent flowing out of the storage for no longer than 2 to 4 weeks was an indicative that the silage was slowly deteriorating due to entry of air (Moran, 1945). Wilted silage produced little or no effluent unless the stack was poorly sealed. Un-wilted silage will produce some effluent, which may leak out of drums and stacks into the soil. Only small amount of silage effluent will leaked from well-sealed drums and plastic bags, and may even leak slowly from upturned drums. It was important not to remove drum lids, untie bag tops or hole their bottoms to let moisture out, or to see how they are going. This will allow far too much air to enter, leading to very poorly fermented silages, and even just compost. Characteristics of silages that had undergone an unsatisfactory fermentation: had a strong, pungent, very unpleasant smell; had a strong ammonia smell; contained excess moisture when squeezed or continually oozes from the base; mouldy or slimy; had undergone much deterioration (>20% DM loss); slightly damp and dark brown; the plastic sheet or lid has not stopped air entry for many days (Moran, 1945). Chemical composition of the raw material had a dominating influence on the fermentation in conventional silage. In the forage crops, chemical composition were influenced by the weather, growth conditions, the level of fertilizer applied, and the maturity of the material at harvest (Woolford, 1984). These factors in turn influence those components of prime importance to fermentation such as fermentable substrate together with organic acids and their salts. Weather could have a significant effect on silage fermentation by its effect on water soluble carbohydrates in grass (Stirling, 1954). The sugar content of a crop harvested in the early morning after several days of dull wet weather with no sunshine was low compared with similar material cut from the same plot one week earlier following brighter weather. Temperature and light intensity were more important influences on sugar content of a crop than its maturity (Wieringa, 1961). 2.5.2 Improving the Quality of Silage Ensiling generally produces better quality roughage than hay because less time is required to wilt the feed, when the forage loses nutrients, causing a reduction in feed quality. The principles of silage making were the same regardless of size of operation, the major difference being in the type of storage used (Mickan, 2003). Unfortunately tropical forages and legumes were not well suited to ensiling due to their inherent low concentrations of water soluble carbohydrates, compared to temperate species (Moran, 1945). However, rapidly wilting the forage or adding a fermentable substrate, such as molasses before ensiling, will usually result in well-fermented silages. Tropical species were difficult to ensile because of their high buffering ability i.e. their resistance to changes in pH. To enable them to undergo a more satisfactory fermentation, two techniques were available to small holders; wilting the forage prior to ensiling and adding a fermentable substrate at ensiling (Moran, 1945). Napier grass will be about 12-15% DM at harvest and should, if possible, be wilted to at least 30% DM. when harvested in the morning, wilting may only require the heat of the afternoon of that day, but when cut later in the day or on cloudy days, it may need wilting till midday of the following day. The layer of the material to be wilted should be no thicker than 10cm and should be turned over two to three times to encourage wilting. If too thick, the forage will heat and begin to decompose and encourage the wrong types of bacteria to grow. Forage quality and dry matter will be lost. Since leaves dry more quickly than stems, smashing or conditioning the nodes on the stems and the stems themselves will increase the wilting rate. If the fresh forage cannot be wilted, the fermentation of the silage will be improved by mixing the chopped material with 3% to 5% molasses (on a fresh weight basis) just prior to ensiling. Adding water to the molasses is not recommended as the forage is already too moist and extra water will just reduce the fermentation quality. Rather than mixing it thoroughly, the molasses can be spread as layers in the forage, say every 10 to 15 cm. where the molasses was applied, the silage ferments better and was sweeter smelling, but the overall silage quality was still good. Other suitable fermentable substrates include rice bran or formulated concentrates (mixed at 10%) in layers with molasses (5%) poured on top of the rice bran. We found the silage surrounding the rice bran was drier and more acidic (pH 4.1) compared to silage with no additive (Moran, 1945). The shorter the chop length, the better the compaction, hence less air was trapped in the forage, resulting in better silage quality. Chopped lengths should be from 1 to 3 cm. if chopped lengths were longer, additional molasses (5-6% on a fresh forage basis) may improve the fermentation. However, the stems should be chopped to small lengths because they were harder to compact. Leaves can be left at 3 to 8 cm length. Where the forage had become too long but was still in the vegetative state, only chop and ensile the leaves and the top end of the stems to produce higher quality silage. Regardless of the system of the silage storage, the forage must be compacted as densely as possible, so compact it until it was difficult to insert your finger into the stack. The shorter the material was chopped, the more dense it can be packed and the less air that will be trapped inside the stack. The entire silage storage should be filled and sealed in one day, and at a maximum, two days. Silages in well-sealed storages that prevent the entry of air or water will maintain their quality for much longer than will silage in poorly sealed storage. 2.5.3 The Effects of Certain Additives on the Grass Silage Quality The main concern with the ensilage of tropical forages was the low dry matter and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content. Wilting can overcome this problem but it may not be preferred or always possible during adverse climatic conditions. Suitable additives become an alternative to wilting. Even where wilting was carried out, additives were recommended to improve the fermentation and nutritive value of conventional as well as round bale silages (Bates et al. 1989; Staples 1995). The additives were used to improved silage preservation by ensuring that lactic acid bacteria dominate the fermentation phase in the ensiling process (Titterton and Bareeba, 1999) and they were divided into three general categories; the fermentation stimulants, e.g. bacterial inoculants and enzymes; fermentation inhibitors such as propionic, formic and sulphuric acids; and substrate or nutrient source, such as maize grains, molasses, urea or anhydrous ammonia (Woolford 1984; Henderson, 1993; Bolsen et al. 1995). The use of molasses was not only improves the energy content of silage but also ensures low pH and prevents proteolysis (Rasool et al. 1999). Four percent molasses added to the ensiled material generally improved silage quality derived from grasses in terms of increased lactic acid content (Aminah et al. 1999). Molasses, ground maize and palm kernel cake have been utilised locally as additives. Ensiled poultry litter was successfully included in the feed of ruminants as a protein supplement (Kayouli and Lee 1999) and, locally, poultry litter had been ensiled together with pineapple waste. However, the inclusion of additives, although encouraged, was not often carried out due to additional costs and the availability problem. It should be noted that silages have been successfully produced with neither wilting nor use of additives. Maize and forage sorghum crops were made into excellent silage and S. sphacelata var. splendida and P. purpureum were converted into acceptable silage without additives (Aminah et al. 1999). Inoculation. Since most forage crops intended for the silo are well seeded with lactic acid organisms, it is not to be expected that lactic acid cultures applied to forage to be ensiled will be of very much benefit. This with certain exceptions has been the finding abroad (6) and what similar work has been done in this country has been relatively ineffective. Inoculation of forage in the silo seems particularly absurd when the inoculum is tobe applied, as is the case with one commercial product, on layers of silage at the 1-filled level, the 2-filled level, the 3-filled level, and at the top of the filled silo. Whey. Soured cheese factory whey is an inoculum which at the same time has a certain amount of lactose for further fermentation. But since several hundred pounds of whey are required to supply the necessary sugar for proper acidity, to avoid excessive amounts of moisture the forage will in most cases need to wilt for several hours in the sun before ensiling. Condensed soured whey is a more logical preservative, as also is powdered whey. The cost of the latter two products and the bother of a very thin liquid, like ordinary whey, may not make whey in its svarious forms very attractive. 2.6 Production and Characterization of EM Professor Dr Teruo Higa developed the technology of EM in the 1970s at the University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan. The first solutions contained over 80 species from 10 genera isolated from Okinawa and other environments in Japan. With time, the technology was refined to include only the four important species cited earlier, namely Lactic Acid Bacteria, Photosynthetic Bacteria, Actinomyces and Yeast. Lactic acid bacteria: produces lactic acid from sugars. Food and drinks such as yogurt and pickles have been made by using lactic acid bacteria. However, lactic acid is a strong sterilizer. It suppresses harmful microorganisms and increases rapid decomposition of organic matter. Moreover Lactic acid bacteria enhances the breakdown of organic matter such as lignin and cellulose, and ferment these materials which normally take plenty of time. Lactic acid bacteria have the ability to suppress Fusarium propagation which is a harmful microorganism that causes disease problem in continuous cropping. Under Fusarium conditions promotes the increase of harmful nematodes. The occurrence of nematodes disappears gradually, as lactic acid bacteria suppress the propagation and function of Fusarium. Yeasts: synthesize antimicrobial and useful substances for plant growth from amino acids and sugars secreted by photosynthetic bacteria, organic matter and plant roots. Bioactive substances such as hormones and enzymes produced by yeasts promote active cell and root division. Their secretions are useful substrates for eff ective microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria and actinomycetes. Actinomycetes: are the structure of which is intermediate to that of bacteria and fungi, produces antimicrobial substances from amino acids secreted by photosynthetic bacteria and organic matter. These antimicrobial substances suppress harmful fungi and bacteria. Actinomycetes can coexist with photosynthetic bacteria. Thus, both species enhance the quality of the soil environment, by increasing the antimicrobial activity of the soil. EMASÃâÃ ® (EM Activated Solution) is a fermented product derived from EM-1ÃâÃ ® product mixed with sugarcane molasses and water. EM-1ÃâÃ ® is made up from three groups of bacteria: Photosynthetic bacteria, Lactic Acid bacteria, and yeast. EM-1ÃâÃ ® when mixed with molasses and then non-chlorinated water mixed with the later mixture and then the solution is fermented for seven days and produced as a product called EMASÃâÃ ®. EMASÃâÃ ® have the special ability to preserve, restore and revive and it is expected to have a better. 2.6.1 Effective Microorganisms (EM) as Silage Additives The effects of the use of EM-silage in corn silage are less prominent than as to the use in grass silage (Wikselaar, 2000). However, in general the same trends at the use of EM-silage in grass and corn silage are percept