Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Why there Is piracy? There must be reasons for piracy. Piracy Is a committed by people for a number of reasons. Some of the reasons for this act are Identified below: To enjoy services or entertainment at low cost prices or no cost to the consumers. Expo: Music, games, videos, software from internet. For profit Competitive Advantage Sabotage 3. What is law? Malaysia's copyright act 1987 came into effect on 1 December 1987, replacing the copyright act 1969. The 1987 act confers copyright on and protects computer programs (software).The 1987 act amended in 1990 to ensure compliance with the prescribed standards and minimum requirements under the Berne Convention. The copyright (application to other countries) Regulations 1990 came into force on 1 October 1 990, the day Malaysia acceded to the Berne Convention. [ source: http:// www. Abs. Org/Malaysia/intricacy/Piracy-and-the-Law. Com ] Point: Source: www. Slideshows. Net/Lonny/copyright-and-piracy-from-moral-and-legal- attendants-cit-p resentation 1 .Copyright is a form of legal protection that grants people who create and produce material the exclusive rights to control certain uses of that material from being reproduced without the permission of the copyright owner. 2. Why Piracy E-SST The price For profit/competitive advantages 3. Moral Issues Give a chance to the creator to able to make a living and provide jobs for many other Decrease the chance to get problems. Note from Facial: Please find more and add.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
My Favorite Movie There are thousands of movies in the United States. Many people have several favorite movies throughout their lifetime. Some people have favorites from each decade. Though many movies have grabbed my attention, my favorite is the eighties movie The Breakfast Club. I love the main characters, the amazing storyline, and the original ending. I have watched this movie many times and it never gets old to me. The reason I love this movie is that I can relate many of the characters to people I know or have met throughout my life. I relate myself to Alisson Reynolds, who comes off as strange and reserved.She is insecure and alone, but she wants to be noticed. John Bender (the bad boy of the group) has a hard shell but he is soft at heart. John reminds me of many gentlemen I enountered in high school. The popular girl, Claire Standish, and my best friend are so similar it is scary. They are insecure and feel neglected by their parents, but are envied by outsiders for their l ooks and financial stability. As the movie starts, the storyline captures my attention and glues me to the screen. In the beginning, five high school students with nothing in common face spending a Saturday in detention together in their high school library.Detention starts out kind of rocky at first. The students see each other as different and make judgements based on social statuses. As the movie progresses, the students start to open up to one another. Allison is a compulsive liar and craves attention because she feels invisable. Brian and Claire are ashamed of their virginity. Andrew even tells his classmates the real reason he is in detention. Later, it is also discovered that each person in the group has a strained relationship with at least one of their parents. I think that the storyline shows that Andrew is right, Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re all pretty bizarre.Some of us are just better at hiding it, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all. Ã¢â¬ -Andrew (The Jock), The Breakfast Club. The ending of t he movie is the icing on the cake because everyone becomes a friend. Andrew seems to be interested in Alisson. Claire kisses John and it looks like the two characters might start a relationship. The group decides to have Brian write about the assigned topic. He writes a letter to the principal objecting to his request to describe who they are, stating that the principal has already judged who they are and he will not accept anything different from the students.To the outside world they are simply the Jock, the Brain, the Criminal, the Princess, and the Basket Case, but to each other, they will always be the Breakfast Club. As many times as I have seen this movie, it still keeps me entertained. The main characters still remind me of friends and family. The plot entrances me like no other movie I have seen. More than anything else, the ending makes me want to watch the movie all over again. Everyone should see this movie at least once in his or her lifetime. It has been my favorite fo r many years and I think that it will be a hard film to top. My Favorite Movie My Favorite Movie There are thousands of movies in the United States. Many people have several favorite movies throughout their lifetime. Some people have favorites from each decade. Though many movies have grabbed my attention, my favorite is the eighties movie The Breakfast Club. I love the main characters, the amazing storyline, and the original ending. I have watched this movie many times and it never gets old to me. The reason I love this movie is that I can relate many of the characters to people I know or have met throughout my life. I relate myself to Alisson Reynolds, who comes off as strange and reserved.She is insecure and alone, but she wants to be noticed. John Bender (the bad boy of the group) has a hard shell but he is soft at heart. John reminds me of many gentlemen I enountered in high school. The popular girl, Claire Standish, and my best friend are so similar it is scary. They are insecure and feel neglected by their parents, but are envied by outsiders for their l ooks and financial stability. As the movie starts, the storyline captures my attention and glues me to the screen. In the beginning, five high school students with nothing in common face spending a Saturday in detention together in their high school library.Detention starts out kind of rocky at first. The students see each other as different and make judgements based on social statuses. As the movie progresses, the students start to open up to one another. Allison is a compulsive liar and craves attention because she feels invisable. Brian and Claire are ashamed of their virginity. Andrew even tells his classmates the real reason he is in detention. Later, it is also discovered that each person in the group has a strained relationship with at least one of their parents. I think that the storyline shows that Andrew is right, Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re all pretty bizarre.Some of us are just better at hiding it, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all. Ã¢â¬ -Andrew (The Jock), The Breakfast Club. The ending of t he movie is the icing on the cake because everyone becomes a friend. Andrew seems to be interested in Alisson. Claire kisses John and it looks like the two characters might start a relationship. The group decides to have Brian write about the assigned topic. He writes a letter to the principal objecting to his request to describe who they are, stating that the principal has already judged who they are and he will not accept anything different from the students.To the outside world they are simply the Jock, the Brain, the Criminal, the Princess, and the Basket Case, but to each other, they will always be the Breakfast Club. As many times as I have seen this movie, it still keeps me entertained. The main characters still remind me of friends and family. The plot entrances me like no other movie I have seen. More than anything else, the ending makes me want to watch the movie all over again. Everyone should see this movie at least once in his or her lifetime. It has been my favorite fo r many years and I think that it will be a hard film to top.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Modifying the human body or enhancing our cognitive abilities using technology has been a long-time dream for many people. An increasing amount of research tries to link the human brain with machines allowing humans to control their environment through their thoughts. Research on BCIs began in the 1970s, but it wasnt until the mid-1990s that the first working experimental implants in humans appeared. Following years of animal experimentation, early working implants in humans now exist, designed to restore damaged hearing, sight and movement. The common thread throughout the research is the remarkable cortical plasticity of the brain, which often adapts to BCIs, treating prostheses controlled by implants as natural limbs. With recent advances in technology and knowledge, pioneering researchers could now conceivably attempt to produce BCIs that augment human functions rather than simply restoring them, previously only the realm of science fiction. 2. Brain Machine Interface (Brain Computer Interface): In this definition, the word Ã¢â¬Å"brainÃ¢â¬ means the brain or nervous system of an organic life form rather than the mind. ComputerÃ¢â¬ means any processing or computational device, from simple circuits to silicon chips (including hypothetical future technologies such as quantum computing). A Brain Machine Interface (BMI), sometimes called a Direct Neural Interface or a Brain Computer Interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. In one-way BCIs, computers either accept commands from the brain or send signals to it (for example, to restore vision) but not both. Two-way BCIs would allow brains and external devices to exchange information in both directions but have yet to be successfully implanted in animals or human. Brain-computer interface (BCI) is collaboration between a brain and a device that enables signals from the brain to direct some external activity, such as control of a cursor or a prosthetic limb. The interface enables a direct communications pathway between the brain and the object to be controlled. In the case of cursor control, for example, the signal is transmitted directly from the brain to the mechanism directing the cursor, rather than taking the normal route through the bodys neuromuscular system from the brain to the finger on a mouse. By reading signals from an array of neurons and using computer chips and programs to translate the signals into action, BCI can enable a person suffering from paralysis to write a book or control a motorized wheelchair or prosthetic limb through thought alone. Current brain-interface devices require deliberate conscious thought; some future applications, such as prosthetic control, are likely to work effortlessly. One of the biggest challenges in developing BCI technology has been the development of electrode devices and/or surgical methods that are minimally invasive. In the traditional BCI model, the brain accepts an implanted mechanical device and controls the device as a natural part of its representation of the body. Much current research is focused on the potential on non-invasive BCI. At the European Research and Innovation Exhibition in Paris in June 2006, American scientist Peter Brunner composed a message simply by concentrating on a display. Brunner wore a close-fitting (but completely external) cap fitted with a number of electrodes as shown in fig. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity from Brunners brain was picked up by the caps electrodes and the information used, along with software, to identify specific letters or characters for the message. The BCI Brunner demonstrated is based on a method called the Wadsworth system. Like other EEG-based BCI technologies, the Wadsworth system uses adaptive algorithms and Pattern-matching techniques to facilitate communication. Both user and software are expected to adapt and learn, making the process more efficient with practice. During the presentation, a message was displayed from an American neurobiologist who uses the system to continue working, despite suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrigs disease). He was able to send the following e-mail message: I am a neuroscientist who (sic) couldnt work without BCI. I am writing this with my EEG courtesy of the Wadsworth Center Brain-Computer Interface Research Program. EEG Pattern Recognition This project aims to improve performance of NASA missions by developing brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies for augmented human-system interaction. BCI technologies will add completely new modes of interaction, which operate in parallel with keyboards, speech, or other manual controls, thereby increasing the bandwidth of human-system interaction. The research will extend recent feasibility demonstrations of electromyographic (EMG) methods for neurocontrol to the domain of electroencephalographic (EEG) methods of neurocontrol. These methods will bypass muscle activity and draw control signals directly from the human brain. BCI technologies will provide powerful and intuitive modes of interaction with 2-D and 3-D data, particularly for visualization and searching in complex data structures, such as geographical maps, satellite images, and terrain databases. . Model train control via brain interface machine: Hitachi has successfully tested a brain-machine interface that allows users to turn power switches on and off with their mind. Relying on optical topography, a neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light to map blood concentration in the brain, the system can recognize the changes in brain blood flow associated with mental activity and translate those changes into voltage signals for controlling external devices. In the experiments, test subjects were able to activate the power switch of a model train by performing mental arithmetic and reciting items from memory. The prototype brain-machine interface allows only simple control of switches, but with a better understanding of the subtle variations in blood concentrations associated with various brain activities, the signals can be refined and used to control more complex mechanical operations. In the long term, brain-machine interface technology may help paralyzed patients become independent by empowering them to carry out actions with their minds. In the short term, Hitachi sees potential applications for this brain-machine interface in the field of cognitive rehabilitation, where it can be used as an entertaining tool for demonstrating a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s progress. NOTE: The earliest interfaces developed in this breakthrough field of research require scientists to insert electrodes into the skull in order to physically tap directly into the brain, and researchers are currently trying to develop technologies that will enable them to access neurological activity through minimally invasive techniques. It is hoped that some day brain machine interfaces will be able to read neural signals non-invasively, from outside the skull, and that devices will be operated involuntarily, without deliberate conscious thought. Thus, for example, fighter pilots wearing specialized helmets may be able to operate some controls automatically, just by thinking. 4. Neuroprosthetics: Neuroprosthetics (also called Neural Prosthetics) is a discipline related to neuroscience and biomedical engineering concerned with developing neural prostheses, artificial devices to replace or improve the function of an impaired nervous system. The neuroprosthetic seeing the most widespread use is the cochlear implant, with approximately 100,000 in use worldwide as of 2006. There are several types of neuroprosthetic as follows: I. Sensory Prosthetics: i. Visual prosthetics: One of the prominent goals in neuroprosthetics is a visual supplement, noting roughly 95% of all people considered blind suffer significant impairment but have some capability (for example, seeing some sort of blur) only about 5% of blind people are totally blind. By the 1940s, researchers had established the concept of artificial electrical stimulation of the visual cortex, and in the late 1960s, British scientist Giles Brindley produced breakthrough findings with a system for placing electrodes on the brains surface. When specific areas of the brain were stimulated in blind volunteers, all reported seeing phosphenes that corresponded to where they would have appeared in space. However, experiments were discontinued because of the uncomfortably high currents required for stimulation on the surface of the brain. Encouraged by this work, the National Institutes of Health undertook a project to develop and deploy an interface based on ultra fine wire (25 to 50 micrometers) densely populated with electrode sites that could be implanted deep into the visual cortex, thus requiring less current than Brindleys original design. This work led to new electrode technologyÃ¢â¬âfiner than the width of human hairÃ¢â¬âthat could be safely implanted in animals to electrically stimulate, and passively record, electrical activity in the brain. The efforts produced significant advances in neurophysiology, with publication of hundreds of papers in which researchers attempted to develop an electronic interface to the brain. ii. Auditory prosthetics (cochlear implant): A cochlear implant (or bionic ear) is a surgically implanted device that can help provide a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing. Unlike hearing aids, the cochlear implant does not amplify sound, but works by directly stimulating any functioning auditory nerves inside the cochlea with electrical impulses. External components of the cochlear implant include a microphone, speech processor and transmitter. iii. Prosthetics for pain relief (Spinal Cord Stimulator): The Spinal Cord Stimulator or (Dorsal Column Stimulator) is used to treat chronic neurological pain. It is implanted near the dorsal surface of the spinal cord and an electric impulse generated by the device provides a tingling sensation that alters the perception of pain by the patient. A pulse generator or RF receiver is implanted in the abdomen or buttocks. A wire harness connects the lead to the pulse generator. II. Motor prosthetics: . Bladder control implants (Sacral anterior root stimulator): Where a spinal cord lesion leads to paraplegia, patients have difficulty emptying their bladders and this can cause infection. From 1969 onwards Brindley developed the sacral anterior root stimulator, with successful human trials from the early 1980s onwards. This device is implanted over the sacral anterior root ganglia of the spin al cord; controlled by an external transmitter, it delivers intermittent stimulation which improves bladder emptying. It also assists in defecation and enables male patients to have a sustained full erection. The related procedure of sacral nerve stimulation is for the control of incontinence in able-bodied patients. ii. Sensory/Motor prosthetics: In 2002 an implant was interfaced directly into the median nerve fibres of the scientist Kevin Warwick. The electrode array inserted contained 100 electrodes, of which 25 could be accessed at any one time. The signals produced were detailed enough that a robot arm developed by Warwicks colleague, Peter Kyberd, was able to mimic the actions of Warwicks own arm and provide a form of touch feedback via the implant. Fig: Electrode array Fig: Robot arm iii. Cognitive prosthetics: Sensory and motor prostheses deliver input to and output from the nervous system respectively. Theodore Berger at the University of Southern California defines a third class of prostheses aimed at restoring cognitive function by replacing circuits within the brain damaged by stroke, trauma or disease. Work has begun on a proof-of-concept device a hippocampal prosthesis which can mimic the function of a region of the hippocampus a part of the brain responsible for the formation of memories. . BMI versus Neuroprosthetics: Neuroprosthetics is an area of neuroscience concerned with neural prostheses Ã¢â¬â using artificial devices to replace the function of impaired nervous systems or sensory organs. The most widely used neuroprosthetic device is the cochlear implant, which was implanted in approximately 100,000 people worldwide as of 2006.  There are also several neuroprosthetic devices that aim to restore vision, in cluding retinal implants, although this article only discusses implants directly into the brain. The differences between BCIs and neuroprosthetics are mostly in the ways the terms are used: neuroprosthetics typically connect the nervous system, to a device, whereas the term Ã¢â¬Å"BCIsÃ¢â¬ usually connects the brain (or nervous system) with a computer system. Practical neuroprosthetics can be linked to any part of the nervous system, for example peripheral nerves, while the term BCI usually designates a narrower class of systems which interface with the central nervous system. The terms are sometimes used interchangeably and for good reason. Neuroprosthetics and BCI seek to achieve the same aims, such as restoring sight, hearing, movement, ability to communicate, and even cognitive function. Both use similar experimental methods and surgical techniques. 6. Future Trends and Scopes: Recent advances in cortically controlled brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have demonstrated that goal-directed movement of external devices is possible in real-time using multi-electrode recordings from cortex. A number of challenges are currently being confronted to further advance BMI research to the next level. These include choosing the optimal decoding algorithm for the type of control to be performed, localizing the optimal cortical site for reliable control, and focusing on the most suitable electrophysiological signal for practical use in a BMI. We present results that attempt to address these challenges based on multi-electrode recording from multiple motor cortical areas in behaving monkeys. . Conclusion: Although brainÃ¢â¬âmachine interfaces are often talked about in relation to disabled people, we can expect they will also be used by the non-disabled as a means to control their environment especially if the devices are non-invasive and no implants are needed. To date there has not been much public discussion of the implications of brain machine interfaces, the amount of public RD funding they receive, and control, distribution and access to these devices.
Work Place Safety - Essay Example Therefore, human resource personnel together with the management ought to formulate and implement action plans to help address these issues. This paper explicates workplace safety issues in healthcare, and specific HR role in assuring safety. This paper further focuses on safety issues unique to healthcare, how HR enters into safety issues with their clinicians, and case studies of hospitals that have successful safety projects. Improving workplace safety in health care organizations has been a global challenge affecting both industrialized and third world countries. Each and every aspect of health could potentially put the safety of health providers and their clients at risk. For instance, the fact that health care providers deal with patients who sometimes present themselves with communicable disease means that they have a higher risk of acquiring the infections. According to the United States Department of Labor (2010), 653,000 incidents relating to harm or occupational diseases were account in 2010. These incidents in healthcare were higher when compared to other areas of the economy. In an effort to reduce these incidents, HR ought to work hand in hand with clinicians. Before explicating HR issues relating to workplace safety, it is important to define safety and workplace safety in the context of healthcare. A definition of safety cited by Hughes and Ferrett (2010, p. 2) denote safety as "The protection of people from physical injury". The meaning of workplace safety is explicated by Hughes and Ferrett (2010) through a definition of work-related ill health. In elucidating the definition in laymans terms, work-related ill health can be referred to as diseases resulting from or prompted by processes characteristic of healthcare organizations Jong et al (2014) posits that a healthcare provider can acquire special infections such as
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Project Management for Construction Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Project Management for Construction - Assignment Example 6) The total amount certified for payment to the contractor by the client/employer is 6,750,000 7) The retention percentage is 10% prior to practical completion (for the main contract) 8) The amount received from the client to date is 5,850,000 9) The total amount certified for payment to package contractors is 5,800,000 10) The total value of package contracts let is 7,500,000 11) There are no retentions held against package contractors-however the current amounts certified but outstanding (i.e. unpaid) to them is 300,000 12) The cladding package contractor to whom the contractor owes 100,000 (including in the 300,000 above) has just become insolvent. The cladding is complete but no warranties have yet been received 13) The current certified installment is one month overdue for payment from the client/employer whose shares have halved in value during the last year 14) We have no other contracts with this client/employer 15) There has been exceptionally inclement weather for the last three months 16) The contract is currently expected to be completed three weeks late 17) Liquidated and ascertained damages are set at 30,000 per week 18) Claims by package contractors currently stand at 200,000 19) Counter-claims package contractors currently stand at 75,000 20) There was an accident on site last month in which a package contractor's employee lost a leg. The Health and Safety Executive are currently investigating this accident. 21) In the last month there has been a two week strike by the Professional League of Plumber (PLoP) which affected the Mechanical, Electrical and plumbing package contractor on the site 22) We calculate that the value of uncertified work carried out is 300,000 of which...These factors would relate to profits of the project, company mission and objectives, the financial issues in the company, the contractual obligations, commercial aspects and marketing procedures, and also the raw materials used by the contractor. Recommendations are provided on how the contractor should control its commercial department and what are the points that should be emphasized to report on the financial status of the company. This report is on the examination of the contract No. 205 for construction of offices and yards for Russ Ting metal Stockholders plc. The report will consider the factors that have to be taken into account for determining the current financial and commercial status of the project. In this report I would consider how these factors will affect the financial status of the project. For this all the financial elements are considered in accordance with the following points. 23) The architect's drawing (correctly) showed doors of width 920mm but the
Saturday, July 27, 2019
American Popular Culture - Essay Example In both presentations, popular culture is normally perceived as being less important by its icons so as to bring together wide acceptance that can dominate the mainstream ideology. As a consequence, it is normally castigated by non-mainstream forces which consider it shallow, consumerist, scandalous, or dishonest. This paper compares and contrasts the role of race (as discussed by another party) and advertising (presented by myself) in the American popular culture. Media advertising is largely a general part of the human lifestyle, especially in a consumerist society in the same way as race (Solomon 59). The average person in American society is faced with numerous adverts every day including billboards, television commercials, movie trailers and commodity introduction in films, online ads, radio and print media ads among others in the same way race pops up in virtually every social setting. In my presentation, advertising is seen as partly driven by popular culture attributes, and partly educative, in the sense that, the consumer learns about and how to understand other ways in which the popular culture manifests such as the needs and preferences of racial groups in respect of commodities set for sale. According to Solomon (60) Movie trailers, for example, are not just geared towards the sale of the media clip, but rather they attempt to influence the way the audiences perceive the storyline and the actions. Owing to the integration of various races in a film, the effect on the audience is similar to that of pure advertising in the sense that both improve socialization through cross-cultural interactions, influencing thought processes and the feelings of the audience in a balanced way. Cross-racial interactions in movies are similar to and or compliments media ads seeking unity in diversity, especially in the wake of globalization.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Cola Wars - Essay Example While the Equity/Assets ratio of PepsiCo has increased over the decades, it has remained nearly the same for Coke. Coke has experienced increase in the Debt/Asset ratio while PepsiCo has seen a decline in this ratio. PepsiCo increased its popularity through diversification strategy and spending on advertising, though its ROE occasionally dropped because of the divided attention between the promotion of different products. Coke led the competition between the 80s and the 90s in terms of sales and profitability. Shift of customer preferences affected both companies in 2000s, though Coke managed its indebtedness better than PepsiCo. Nevertheless, PepsiCo took the lead starting from 2000. Both Coke and PepsiCo have been twisting their HR departments in response to external influences and changing preferences (Hitt, Ireland, and Hoskisson, 2012). The most important HR policy of Coke is recruitment of talent globally. Both companies have good reputation for rewarding their employees. Coke and Pepsi are the products of the two companies. Partnerships and diversification strategies have helped the two companies keep the price reasonable and be at the right places. Both companies have spent a lot on promotional campaigns, particularly of their new
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Information Management - Case Study Example USS's major problems were evident in its order taking process. The orders were manual, imprecise and filled with errors; there was no coherence among the different processors as they had their own tracking and order system. There fore USS was unable to follow each order as it was processed and delivered. The communication system employed between the different processors was a dialup system meaning that data processing wasted a lot of time, invariably forcing the company to hold large inventory, increasing its production cost. All such problems made USS uncompetitive in face of other producers such as POSCO, which was recently setup with the latest technologies. To fix these problems USS took rapid steps to improve their production system. First of all, they provided their customers to place theirs order online specifying the product, quantity, price, composition, size, thickness, and even delivery date for their orders. The software was developed so as to allow the customer to be able to see the cost as well as the delivery dates of their order, to allow them to plan accordingly for their business. It also allowed for messages from different processors to be translated much more quickly and more efficiently. USS also connected DecisionExpress software from LiveCapital for customers which reduced its uncollectible debts. To further improve the accuracy of the order USS incorporated several other soft wares such as order fulfillment and later i2 Technologies. They also introduced soft wares such as iTrac to keep track of their shipments and Mechanical Item Generation System to regenerate orders for repeat customers. USS also setup a subsidia ry USS Engineers and Consultants, to sell these soft wares to assist other companies. To maintain its competitive advantage they only provide soft wares which are a version older than their current software (Bratislava, 2003). Results and Business benefits In 1996, when USS faced a disastrous situation of losing Ford Motor, USS identified that, in face of future competition computerization of the production system was a necessity. This direction allowed USS to be more efficient and more profitable. After the implementation of the software system USS required 3 work hours to produce a ton of steel, as compared to 4 hours in Germany and 4.8 hours in POSCO. Hence, USS was able to greatly benefit from strong economic conditions by supplying steel to United States, China and other countries (Michael Erman - 2007). Conclusion The progress of U.S. Steel depends on the world demand for their products i.e. steel. As witness from the world wide economic shock, demand for steel and other essential construction material has plummet. Widespread closer of factories has significantly halted further investments, resulting in drastic drops of steel prices. USS has invested great sum of financial capital in refining their production cycle but in current times it will be very difficult to gain
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Numbering Technique - Essay Example The author portrays science as a source of fascination, in this essay. In addition, he also believes that science possesses potential powers in liberating people's minds where its method and rationality can be applied to reality. In Brecht's opinion, nature is a resource for scientific and technological experiments to be exploited for the benefit of the whole human society, rather than being a tool to promote the interests of certain social classes that control the resources of science. This idealism reflects an affinity to Marxism, and it is clear that Brecht's political view becomes apparent in his usage of words such as 'bourgeoisie' and 'proletariat'. The numbering technique, or, in other words, the form used by Brecht, serves as a device to further support his central idea-his goal in letting the audience to be able to 'alienate' from acting (Are you using the words in the context of pretending If so, please replace 'acting' with 'pretending') and encouraging them to change their habits and assumptions about the society. The way the author numbers each paragraphs, to separate one from the other, allows readers brief pauses to ponder over the content. Instead of being influenced by the author, the readers receive the opportunity to think and remain detached of the author's arguments. In comparison, Brechian theater's estrangement effect appeals to reasoning, as it uses various methods to produce a critical attitude in audience. This concept departs from the traditional "empathy" that prevents audience from thinking freely, in order for them to see the real message that lies hidden in the play that may be socially unquestioned. It appears that such an intention of trying to force the audience to 'think' is Brecht's answer to transform the society through the changes made in theatre. There are several points in which the characteristics of alienation effect align with the changes in theatre, and as a consequence, achieve Brecht's goal of changing the audience of the scientific age. One characteristic is that Brecht wants his play to be separated into parts rather than be a continual piece. Brecht suggests: "As we cannot invite the audience to fling itself into the story as if it were a river and let itself be carried vaguely hither and thither, the individual episodes have to be knotted together in such a way that the knots are easily noticed. The episodes must not succeed one another indistinguishably but must give us a chance to interpose our judgment." (201) This may be done through having the orchestra play on stage rather than off-stage, or having a narrator to talk to the audience through out the play, or adding social point in between titles, etc. These techniques create the same alienation effect, similar Brecht's use of numbers to separate his ideas in "A Short Organum for the Theatre." Likewise is his technique of segregating his essay into smaller paragraphs by numbering them, so as to allow readers enough time to re-read each paragraph and ponder over it before proceeding to the
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
On Aldi Supermarket Stores in Australia - Case Study Example The mission of this supermarket chain is to provide superior quality products to customers at considerably low prices. In 1990s the company has expanded its operations in Australia through opening few retail stores. Woolworths and Coles have dominated Australian retail market over the years. Aldi has posed a threat for these retail firms by offering wide array of products at low market price. However there are challenges witnessed by Aldi since 60% of grocery market share is owned by Woolworths and Coles. Australians prefer to shop from Aldi but the company would require time to gain competitive advantage in retail sector. In this study, micro and macro environmental factors affecting business operations of Aldi Australia shall be identified, followed by an evaluation on their current marketing strategies. Marketing mix elements would also be redesigned in later part of the study, so as to add value to AldiÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. The first most important micro environment trend is competitors. Strategic advantage could be gained by firms only through positioning their products or services well against that of competitors. Aldi Stores, Australia needs to be proactive by nature rather than reactive. Competitors are an important micro-environmental trend because it decides upon effectiveness of business strategies. For instance, Australian retail industry is dominated by two large players Ã¢â¬â Woolworths and Coles. Aldi Australia can be successful over longer period of time if the company is able to analyze strategies of its competitors and undertake proactive measures (ALDI, 2015). The competitive trend is a threat for the firm. This is because any innovative strategy designed by competitors can acquire market share of Aldi Stores in Australia. Competitors as a micro trend is important compared to other trends since it cannot be controlled efficiently by the firm. Customers can be considered as the second micro-environmental trend. In case of Aldi Australia,
U.S History Review Essay It is important to study the history of the U. S because it helps us to learn about the people of America and even about American societies. It also helps us understand how these people or the societies usually behave. This is because history tends to base evidence on analyzing and contemplating about how societies function not only nowadays, but from the past. Examining the history of the U. S can help us understand the changes of the society from the very past up to the state they are in today (Crabtree, 1993). Further, studying U. S history can make us understand AmericasÃ¢â¬â¢ political progress from the past to date. We thus can be informed on the shape of the politics in the past and the major developments. Moreover we can even look into the factors that caused changes in the various American political parties. Conversely, historical analyses of voter turnout in key American elections and the associated evolution can make us understand some of the problems American people face today. This can also enable us to understand the present political health of the U. S (Steele, 2009). Moreover, we can understand economic changes in America and factors or policies that the government used to see their economy rising. This information can also help any other nation to improve their economy (Crabtree, 1993). Conversely, the cultural values of the American people can be understood by studying the history of U. S. We can understand the issues of the past by having a look at how people used to live in the past ages which serve as a sense of excitement and beauty (Steele, 2009). Studying the history of America can make one grow psychologically. This can broaden oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind besides making somebody to understand how they can solve problems as they come using facts that were used by philosophers in the past (The Manhattan Institute). References Crabtree, D. (1993). The Importance of History. Retrieved 8th June 2010, from http://www. mckenziestudycenter. org/society/articles/history. html Steele, D. D. (2009). The Importance of Local History. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, LLC. The Manhattan Institute. Why Study War? Victor Davis Hanson, City Journal Summer 2007. Retrieved 8th June 2010, http://www. city-journal. org/html/17_3_military_history. html
Monday, July 22, 2019
The Madding Crowd Essay One of the great strengths of Ã¢â¬ËFar From The Madding CrowdÃ¢â¬â¢ is HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s contrasting portrayals of Gabriel Oak and Sergeant Frank Troy. Discuss this observation on the novelÃ¢â¬â¢ Perhaps the greatest strength of HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s novels is the excellent portrayals of his main characters. There are, however, many other strengths in Ã¢â¬ËFar From the Madding CrowdÃ¢â¬â¢. For example, there are many descriptions of scenery that punctuate the action in the novel. These show HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s skill as a writer by painting the scene so clearly in the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind that the characters can really flourish against their backdrop. The themes of love, persistence and nature permeate the novel and give it depth, even when the plot slows down. The greatest strength, then, is likely to fall to the characters who drive both the plot and the action. Two of these characters, Oak and Troy, fall in love with Bathsheba Everdene and soon find themselves competing for her hand in marriage. The portrayal of the differences between the characters is clearly an example of HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest work in the novel. Gabriel Oak is a simple man who is very clear on who he is. Whilst Oak is shy, he is also honest and always tells the truth. Oak is described by Bathsheba as Ã¢â¬Ëhonest and trueÃ¢â¬â¢ and he often tells her how he feels, Ã¢â¬ËI love you far more than commonÃ¢â¬â¢. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the words and the education to express himself properly to Bathsheba, but he is steadfast, keeping to his bottom line, making Bathsheba happy. Oak is unlucky in love and in life. He fails time and time again to get Bathsheba to marry him, and when he loses his livelihood she is his first, unselfish thought: Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Å"thank God IÃ¢â¬â¢m not married: what would she have done in the poverty now coming upon me! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ This shows that Oak puts other people first and is optimistic. He does not focus on the loss of his money and his farm, but on the good fortune that Bathsheba had not married him. It takes a strong personality to think in this way. Oak is described as a Ã¢â¬Å"young man of sound judgmentÃ¢â¬ ¦and general good characterÃ¢â¬ very early on in the novel. He makes his intentions clear with regard to marrying Bathsheba within a few days of meeting her, and proposes a simple life to her, which reflects his own simplicity and honesty. He says: And at home by the fire, whenever you look up there I shall beÃ¢â¬â and whenever I look up, there will be youÃ¢â¬ , asking her in simple terms to accept him and love him always for who he is. Oak is very modest: Ã¢â¬ËI was never very clever on my insideÃ¢â¬â¢ but he shines underneath his dull extremities, taking charge in the fire and saving BathshebaÃ¢â¬â¢s farm, and again in the storm. The author Jane Bailey says that: Ã¢â¬Å"Gabriel is the only character to really master the forces of natureÃ¢â¬ . I agree with her in this statement because the other characters donÃ¢â¬â¢t deal with the problems nature gives them as well as Gabriel. In the storm, Gabriel knows the rain is coming because of the formation of the sheep, he manages to cover the bales of hay alone, and he is able to save the farm. Boldwood doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get his hay covered and he loses his harvest; Troy gets drunk in the warmth of the barn. This shows that Gabriel has control over HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s main theme, nature. He is a natural leader, but he prefers to sink into the world of the rustics where he feels he fits in. Oak is a kind man, taking pity on a stranger in the night and giving her a shilling, which would have been a significant sum of money. The stranger turns out to be Fanny, and he helps her a second time in death, rubbing out Ã¢â¬Ëand childÃ¢â¬â¢ on her coffin, although it can be debated as to whether Oak did this out of kindness to Fanny or to Bathsheba. Oak is very self-sacrificial, giving everything to Bathsheba, and telling her: Ã¢â¬Å"I love you and I shall love you alwaysÃ¢â¬ . He does not change much over the course of the novel, showing how good Hardy believed him to be in the first place. Oak is not, however, a puritan. He drinks with the rustics and criticises Troy and Boldwood, who are both his class superiors. Oak is determined and Hardy rewards him in the end with a happy marriage to Bathsheba, proving, in HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, that perseverance pays off. Even in OakÃ¢â¬â¢s steadfast protection of Bathsheba, he is never faulted. He leaves quietly when she dismisses him and comes back to save her when she needs him. Even his first name, Gabriel, signifies his long-standing protection over Bathsheba- Gabriel is an Archangel, a protector of humans so his name is very apt. From OakÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and from HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s descriptions of him, we can tell that Oak is a kind hearted, ideal man who loves Bathsheba more than Troy or even Boldwood could imagine.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Influence of Bollywood on Fashion and Film Film, Fashion, and Beyond: The Influence of Bollywood. The relationship between the world of fashion and the world of cinema is complex and intertwined. Film allows us the opportunity to escape for a few hours into lives that are not our ownÃ¢â¬âlives that may be, in fact, quite different from our own. In a similar vein, fashion gives us the opportunity to re-invent ourselves by constructing our external appearance to accommodate the shift in self-image. These shifts in image often reflect the icons we admire in the movies. Perhaps we cannot become them, but we can become like them. One way in which we do this by following their lead: by adopting the distinctive fashion styles associated with them. Sometimes, this can be something simple, such as buying a new pair of designer jeans. At other times, this can mean embracing a culture that may be foreign to us. This is how Hindi styles have begun to take hold in mainstream fashion. The latest word in filmÃ¢â¬âand in fashionÃ¢â¬âis Bollywood. Bollywood is used informally to refer to the film industry in India. It was coined as a shortened form of Bombay plus Hollywood. Bombays name has since changed to Mumbai, but the name Bollywood is here to stayÃ¢â¬âas is the industry: The film industry in Bombay. . . is the biggest in the world. It makes almost double the number of movies and sells a billion more tickets each year than Hollywood (Boyk 2004). The influences of Bollywood are ubiquitous; they can be seen in everything from haute couture fashion to music, often blurring the line between high and low art. In addition, the popularity of Bollywood movies has led to a high demand for the kinds of clothing worn on the big screen. Traditional Hindi dress has become a sought-after commodity all over the world.Ã The fact that Indian-style clothing has become so in-demand is quite a contrast to years past. Until Indian films became popular, western clothes were the preferred attire, and they dominated the fashion world. Western-style clothing was most often what was worn in movies, and mainstream culture responded to that. Hindi garments, on the other hand, were considered unattractive and out-of-date. This began to change when Mumbai-based movies began to receive acclaim. The stars of these movies wore Indian garments, and this made Hindi-style clothing seem glamorous. Bollywood fashions are no longer regarded as gaudy or unstylish, because thereÃ¢â¬â¢s top talent working behind the scenes (Melwani 2005). This is a clear example that demonstrates the power of celebrities. Many celebrities are idolized by their fans. Because of this exalted status, the clothing they wear takes on positive associations. Thus, fans who admire them will naturally want to emulate them. They do this by using the same products the stars endorse. At times celebrities will publicly endorse a product, by appearing in a magazine advertisement or a commercial. At other times, however, they do not need to make an effort to sell the product or style of clothing. The mere fact that they are wearing or using it is considered by many to be endorsement enough. Each time one of these stars appears in a film, the clothing they wear becomes a desired commodity. This includes accessories, footwear, and jewelry. In addition, the way they wear the garment can become a trend in itself. For example, if they do something different or daring, chances are that this, too, will be copied by their fans. In fact, it has been asserted that each film is a brand in itself, and as each film releases we have a fresh new brand of fashion and lifestyle products pushing fashion among the masses (Bansal 2005). It seems clear that the film industry is closely intertwined with the world of fashion. After all, selling fashion products is a perception game. While the product needs to be inherently good and wearable, the aspiration value comes from its association with a leading personality who the masses idolise and look up to (Bansal 2005). It is through the subliminalÃ¢â¬âand not so subliminal messages of film that we grew accustomed to designer names like Tommy Hilfiger or Fubu. The increasing popularity of Hindi films has had a similar effect on our likes and dislikes, as the fashions associated with them have become highly marketable. The most popular role models of Bollywood include such superstars as Bipasha Basu, Madhu Sapre, Katrina Kaif, Dino Morea, and John Abraham The movies themselves are popular for a variety of reasons. First of all, they are usually entertaining, with compelling scenery and appealing musical backgrounds. In addition, they are the types of movies that allow viewers to escape from their own lives and be wrapped up with what is on the screen. Generally they have a plot line that is some variation on the rags-to-riches theme. There is usually some sort of romance, and of course, the boy always gets the girl in Bollywood. These movies also have an appeal that reaches all ages as well as all ethnicitiesÃ¢â¬âperhaps because most people like a happy ending. However, Bollywood films may appeal to young Indians on a deeper level. The actors who star in them are true role models, because the films mirror issues that are specific to them: Increasingly these films are about the schizophrenic worlds that contemporary young Indians live in, the worlds of airplanes, blended cultures and the east-west embrace (Melwani 2005). Thus, young people recognize and respond to this. They, too, want to be strong and independent. They express their admiration by modeling themselves after their icons; in addition, they tacitly express their aspirations by emulating the very people who embody them. The explosion of Bollywood fashion has also increased cultural knowledge, as new terms for specific garments filter into other languages. The sari (also spelled saree) is an unstitched piece of cloth that is draped around a womans body; this, of course, the most well known. Other words have cropped up as well, such as salwar-kameez and dupatta. The salwar-kameez refers to a womens suit that usually consists of a kameez (tunic), a salwar (pair of loose pants), and a dupatta (matching scarf worn in various ways). These garments, traditionally worn by women of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, are now becoming globally known. In fact, the fashion world within India itself has undergone a transformation. According to fashion designer Ritu Kumar, in India, the fashion scenario was in confusion as it was a turbulent period of conflicting ideologies, when the consciousness of an Indian national identity was beginning to find political expression and the struggle for Indian independence was getting momentum.Ã Fashion trends prior to Bollywood were dictated by higher echelons of society. This, in turn, was strongly influenced by the British. In addition, the body image of the femme fatale of Hindi women has undergone a similar transformation. Formerly voluptuous and wide-hipped, a new standard has become the rule. The desirable image is now sleek and slim: the high visibility of the indigenous fashion industry also changed the look of the screen siren and shaped a new body image (Rao 2003). The influence of film has played a huge role in changing that. Film clearly has a symbiotic relationship with fashion. What is shown on the silver screen often makes its way into our own lives on some level. There are a number of dynamics at work here. As Entwistle has asserted, dress is tied up to social life in more than one way: it is produced out of economic, political, technological conditions as well as conditions shaped by social., cultural, aesthetic ideas (2000:111). The link between cinema and mainstream fashion is easily apparent. What is seen on the silver screen by movie viewers one day, will often end up being a popular commodity the next. Movies provide an outlet for viewersÃ¢â¬âa chance to step out of their own lives and into the lives of otherÃ¢â¬âusually glamorousÃ¢â¬âpeople. Fashion does this in a similar way, allowing its adherents the freedom to re-invent themselves. Often, the selves they try to emulate are those of the icons they admire in film; therefore it seems natural that they emulate the style of dress of those they consider role models. As Joanne Entwistle has so aptly stated it, fashion opens up possibilities for framing the self, however temporarily (2000:139).Ã The establishment of the Indian cinema also proved to be the strongest influence on the fashion in the decade.Due to the western influence, the use of angarkhas, choghas and jamas diminished considerably by this time,although the ceremonial pagri,safa and topi were widespread as ever. References Bansal, Richa. 2005. Styling a fashion-propelled retail trail. http://www.imagesfashion.com/Cover_story_styling_jan05.html Accessed November 25, 2005. Boyk, David. 2004. Bollywood for the Skeptical. http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~dboyk/bollywood/#blurb Accessed November 24, 2005. Entwistle, Joanne. 2000. The Fashioned Body: Fashion, Dress, and Modern Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press. Rao, Maithili. 2003 A Decade of Dizzying Changes. Humanscape Magazine, Vol. 10, Issue 11. Melwani, Lavina. 2005. Bollywood is getting some well-earned respect, finally. http://littleindia.com/august2003/Bollywood%20Graduates.htm Accessed November 25, 2005.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
1. Question no. 2 A large amount of the tension in Eugene OÃ¢â¬â¢ NeillÃ¢â¬â¢s Before Breakfast stems from the main charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ poor economic conditions. The audience begins to understand their situation when Mrs. Rowland says to her spouse Ã¢â¬Å"Hmm! I suppose I might as well get breakfast readyÃ¢â¬ânot that there's anything much to get. Unless you have some money? Foolish question!Ã¢â¬ (paragraph 10) Mrs. Rowland, the depressed wife of a penniless poet, spends the entirety of the story complaining about her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s infidelity and worthlessness. Amidst her rant, she exclaims Ã¢â¬Å"I've a good notion to go home, if I wasn't too proud to let them know what a failure you've beenÃ¢â¬âyou, the millionaire Rowland's only son, the Harvard graduate, the poet, the catch of the townÃ¢â¬âHuh!Ã¢â¬ (line 16) This quote refers to the fact that when she married Mr. Rowland, he appeared to have a very promising future and was considered, as mentione d above, the Ã¢â¬Å"catch of the town.Ã¢â¬ Her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of both financial success and current employment, coupled with his unfaithfulness, are the factors that ignite her frustration and, ultimately, lead to the monologue that induces Mr. RowlandÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide. 2. Question no. 4 William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ is presented from the viewpoint of the titular characterÃ¢â¬â¢s neighbors and fellow townspeople. The narrator begins the story by describing Emily as somewhat of a town spectacle; a mysterious hermit basking in solitude. The first description of Emily by the narrator is Ã¢â¬Å"Alive, Miss Emily had been a tradition, a duty, a care; a sort of hereditary obligation upon the townÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (paragraph 3) This ingratiates the audience with the idea that Emily was not particularly personal with anyone within the town and was considered mo... ...e intemperate language to my wife.Ã¢â¬ (paragraph 6) This makes it seem as if the narrator is trying to tone down how terrible his actions are which, in turn, makes him unreliable. Bonus: Ancient Greek Drama evolved innumerable times within its period. Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides contributed to and ignited many of these contributions. AeschylusÃ¢â¬â¢s plays allowed for a greater number of characters to be introduced, which allowed conflict to arise within the plot. This took the place of previous plays in which characters spoke only to the chorus. Sophocles impacted Greek Drama by both creating a role for a third character and introducing more complex characters into the plot. Finally, Euripides expanded upon the idea of creating complex characters and also introduced characters that were previously unfamiliar to Greek audiences, such as female protagonists.
Chapman's Version of The Odyssey and the Iliad This poem is an expression of how the poet John Keats felt after rediscovering Homer's "The Odyssey and the Iliad" when he read Chapman's English translation of this Greek classic. To express this he uses the form of a sonnet, with fourteen lines, every set of two lines rhyming. The first four lines are one long sentence consisting mainly as metaphors to summarize his full meaning in whole. "Much have I travell'd in the realms of gold, and many goodly states and kingdoms seen". This can be understood only in a "literary" and not a "literal" sense. I say this because he was relatively poor and probably had traveled very little when he wrote this poem at age 21.* But we know that he had a strong passion for literature. * John Keats is trying to tell us that he has traveled and explored the rich realms of literature. "Round many western islands I have been which bards in fealty to Apollo hold". Keats is using "western Islands" to cause us to think of ever new vistas of constant discovery. Keats is stressin...
Friday, July 19, 2019
The Assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy THE ASSASSINATION of John Fitzgerald Kennedy on November 22, 1963, was a cruel and shocking act of violence directed against a man, a family, a nation, and against all mankind. A young and vigorous leader whose years of public and private life stretched before him was the Victim of the fourth Presidential assassination in the history of a country dedicated to the concepts of reasoned argument and peaceful political change. This Commission was created on November 29, 1963, in recognition of the right of people everywhere to full and truthful knowledge concerning these events. This report endeavors to fulfill that right and to appraise this tragedy by the light of reason and the standard of fairness. It has been prepared with a deep awareness of the Commission's responsibility to present to the American people an objective report of the facts relating to the assassination. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Narrative of Events At 11:40 a.m., c.s.t., on Friday, November '22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy, Mrs. Kennedy, and their party arrived at Love Field, Dallas, Tex. Behind them was the first day of a Texas trip planned 5 months before by the President, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, and John B. Connally, Jr., Governor of Texas. After leaving the White House on Thursday morning, the President had flown initially to San Antonio where Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson joined the party and the President dedicated new research facilities at the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine. Following a testimonial dinner in Houston for U.S. Representative Albert Thomas, the President flew to Fort Worth where he spent the night and spoke at a large breakfast gathering on Friday. Planned for later that day were a motorcade through downtown Dallas, a luncheon speech at the Trade Mart, and a flight to Austin where the President would attend a reception and speak at a Democratic fundraising dinner. From Austin he would proceed to the Texas ranch of the Vice President. Evident on this trip were the varied roles which an American President performs--Head of State, Chief Executive, party leader, and, in this instance, prospective candidate for reelection. The Dallas motorcade, it was hoped, would evoke a demonstration of the President's personal popularity in a city which he had lost in the 1960 election. Once it had been decided that the trip to Texas would span 2 days, those responsible for planning, primarily Governor Connally and Kenneth O'Donnell, a special assistant to the President, agreed that a motorcade through Dallas would be desirable.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Thin Slicing is a term used by psychologist and philosophers, but what does it mean? According to Malcolm Gladwell, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the tendency that we have as human beings to reach very rapid, very profound and sophisticated conclusions based on very thin slices of experiences. Ã¢â¬ Blink is a book by Malcolm Gladwell explaining this theory of thin-slicing. In the book Gladwell tells us many different stories that have to do with thin-slicing. The book has examples of successful thin-slicing, examples showing how it works and what it accomplishes.It also has stories teaching us, the reader of thin-slicing and how it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t all that great and completely accurate as well. Some stories that can teach us lessons, which we can learn from not to make the same mistakes over and over. This book is about the unconscious mind and how we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know it but it affects us at every moment whether we notice or not. How the unconscious mind picks up patterns from small amount of information or experiences and we make snap judgments based on those patterns.Which most of the time we donÃ¢â¬â¢t notice, unless of course you have trained your mind to recognize these patterns, which thereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of in the book. All this thin-slicing has its pros and cons I believe GladwellÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is correct; all his examples are backed up by his theory of thin-slicing. He gives evidence to how it works both positively and negatively. The theory of thin-slicing is that we have the ability as human beings to instantly identify specific patterns from within small amounts of experience or information, and we make instant or snap judgments based upon those patterns.What does this mean; it means that our unconscious holds on to information from previous events. From that information our unconscious recognizes certain patterns from the past and catches similarities in current experiences or events and reacts. This reaction although it may sound a bit complicated happens in mere seconds. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t recognize what is going on, it happens without us being able to explain it. The book defines it as, Ã¢â¬Å"the ability of our unconscious to find patterns in situations and behavior based on very narrow slices of experience. Its rapid cognition, the unconscious reacts from recognition to previous patterns in mere seconds; this is what makes it so amazing. At the same time snap judgments from thin-slicing can be very problematic, as we learn from the book in its examples. The first story in the book being a positive one teaches us how thin-slicing works instantly, without being able to explain it. The book starts off at the Getty Museum on its early days, when it was starting off. It wanted to gain some kind of recognition so it made its first big art purchase.It was a 10 million dollar purchase, so the museum took caution. They hired lawyers to check all the paperwork and records of the statue. This statue of a kouros was said to be thousands of years old. There was even a geologist who took samples of the statue and ran it through many different tests and machines. They all concluded that the statue was the real deal and made the purchase in the fall of 1986. This kouros was going to be a great occasion, with stories on the New York Times, and other magazines. A few weeks after the kouros was put on display was when the truth came out.One by one different art experts doubted the statue. They couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t explain why at the time, but their immediate reaction to the kouros was just a hunch that something wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t right. Why though? What did these experts see what all the other people missed when looking at the statue? They were all intuitively repulsed by this kouros at first sight of it. Eventually all the paperwork and records didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit, they all came to the conclusion that the kouros was a fake. The art experts were taking part of thin-slicing.They knew something wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t right the first time they saw it, their hunch was that something wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t right, but they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t explain what it was. This example of the Getty museum showed successful thin slicing. The Ã¢â¬Å"love labÃ¢â¬ is John GottmanÃ¢â¬â¢s successful way of determining if a couple is going to be together 15 years from now. He does this by videotaping each person he just has them sit in a room; he measures their heart rate, movements, and has them have a conversation. He then analyzes these videos second by second, looking at every emotion.His method of determining such an important conclusion is based on SPAFF; itÃ¢â¬â¢s a coding system that has many categories corresponding to all emotions. His success rate is incredibly accurate, by analyzing a couple for an hour his prediction has 95% accuracy if the couple will be married 15 years later. If he watches them for 15 minutes his percentage is about 90%, and with only three minutes of analyzing the accuracy of his predictions are still very impres sive. The Ã¢â¬Å"love lab,Ã¢â¬ is an example of how thin-slicing works correctly.Our unconscious is Gottman analyzing those videos, second by second looking at every emotion in the couples. The only difference is that our thin-slicing is done unconsciously, automatically, and in mere seconds. Our unconscious finds patterns in very minute amounts of events or information. Just like with the Ã¢â¬Å"love labÃ¢â¬ our thin-slicing has a high rate of accuracy. This process makes it possible to gather information to make an important decision in such a short amount of time, itÃ¢â¬â¢s almost instantaneously. Thin-slicing can also be wrong, which weÃ¢â¬â¢ll see in the following examples.The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is an example of the dark side of thin-slicing. This test was made by psychologists. This test brought forth a profound observation, which was that we make connections much more quickly between pairs of ideas that are already related in our minds than we do betwee n pairs of ideas that are unfamiliar to us. The book gives us an example of the IAT tests, the gender and race ones. These tests use mental associations which we are used to and then flips it around, an example is the gender test, first it shows names of both sexes and you have to choose whether the name is a female or male.That part is easy enough and done pretty fast, it then gives you two more choices career or male and female or home then words which are associated to either list. Then the last part where it gets tricky is when it switches home and career, so the choices are male or home and female and career. This part of the test takes people a little longer to choose. This test also has a race version in which the choices are European American or bad and African American and good, then switches the good and bad. The results of the race IAT are that more than 80% have pro-white associations.Why is this so, and what does it mean? The book explains that our attitudes towards rac e and gender operate on two levels. First our conscious attitude which is what we choose to believe. What the IAT measures though is something else, itÃ¢â¬â¢s our second level of attitude on an unconscious level. On this level are our immediate, automatic association that just come out, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t even notice these. These unconscious attitudes werenÃ¢â¬â¢t chosen by us, we may not even be aware of these. This is data our unconscious crunches from past experiences or information weÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen on TV, book, movies, etc.From all this data we unconsciously form opinions of race and gender, which is what the IAT measures. This teaches us that thin-slicing can also have negative conclusions, and may not always be right. The IAT also discovered that the results mean we tend to act differently with certain races, its little things we donÃ¢â¬â¢t notice we do because they are done in an unconscious level. This is bad because it makes us discriminate, on an unconscious level, wit hout us even knowing so. Another example of thin-slicing reactions we donÃ¢â¬â¢t notice. The Millennium Challenge was a war game exercise by the U. S. n 2002 which cost 250 million dollars. This war was made up of blue team which was the U. S. and red team which was the enemy run by Paul Van Riper a retired Marine Corps Lieutenant General. This war game was used by the pentagon to test new ideas about military organization and experiments. Blue team had greater intellectual resources they had an advantage over red team. In the end the winner was the red team. How did this happen, Van Riper didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any advantage over blue team and their resources. He did however have his past experiences to help him. Blue team had all these resources, they had too many resources.All these resources which were supposed to be an advantage ended up being their demise, they were over thinking every move they made. On the other hand Van Riper acted instantly and won. The mistake blue team mad e was that they forced their commanders to stop and talk things over figure out what was going on. The war games didnÃ¢â¬â¢t demand for logic, it demanded for action. This is an example of the unconscious finding patterns in chaos and just reacting, thin-slicing in action. Thin-slicing might sound good for the most part, but there is also much wrong with thin-slicing.Not everything can be thin-sliced, and work out, an example of this in the book is a rock musician known as Kenna. He had a new sound and it was unlike anything ever heard before. People in the music business loved him, and recommended him he got a record deal and so on. The only thing left for Kenna was to have his music on the radio, sounds easy enough if musicians, producers, and people in the business liked his stuff. KennaÃ¢â¬â¢s single was put through a test to see how people were going to react and if he would be successful. His song was tested with people, and ended up being a failure, no one liked him.This is thin-slicing gone wrong, where our first impression isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the right one. KennaÃ¢â¬â¢s song was tested with people who only heard a clip of the song, not the whole song. Just a clip of something they had never heard before something completely new, it was something unrecognizable, and no one liked it. All the music proÃ¢â¬â¢s on the other hand loved it; they were experts in music and knew that Kenna was something different. Just that thin-slicing never let Kenna be the star he could have been. Another lesson we can learn from thin-slicing comes from the shooting f Amadou Diallo. This man was shot down 41 times by 4 police officers. This took place in the Bronx after midnight, the event in the book is said to have only taken 7 seconds to happen. This is when snap judgments went wrong; these four officers reacted and killed an innocent man. These four officers were driving around patrolling as part of the Street Crime Unit. The thing is that they were driving around in an unmarked car in plainclothes. They saw Diallo standing outside his building and thought he looked suspicious so two got off and went to go talk to him.They went up to Diallo and he tried to go inside his building. They kept telling him to freeze and pointed their guns at him; he then reached into his pocket and pulled out something that one of the officers saw as a gun, which ended up being a wallet. So much went wrong here, these cops didnÃ¢â¬â¢t bother to see Diallo or as the book says read his emotions. This is something we, under normal circumstances, have the ability to read other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions through facial expressions. However we lose this ability under too much stress, pressure, or fear.GladwellÃ¢â¬â¢s theory about thin-slicing indicates that it is not enough to make certain conscious changes in attitudes or values, but must also acknowledge the subtle influence that can alter our subconscious, thereby undermining our conscious attitudes. He argues that by t aking control of the environment in which thin-slicing happens, one can also control thin-slicing and prevent/lessen the mistakes made. He makes a good point of this throughout his book; he gives us many examples of how thin-slicing can work positively and negatively. He shows how itÃ¢â¬â¢s not always right, but how we can work on it to correct it.The aeron chair is an example of this, thin-slicing made people look at the chair and hate it. It was something new; they had never seen anything like it so they rejected it. Once they got to try the chair though they experienced it and found out that they actually really liked the chair. The same with KennaÃ¢â¬â¢s music, thin-slicing made people dislike his music. Thin-slicing, snap judgments, all of this has its good and bad. GladwellÃ¢â¬â¢s book shows how the theory of thin-slicing works, good and bad examples of it, and shows us how things can go wrong in the blink of an eye. How our unconscious affects us at all times whether we realize it or not.How we can notice when our snap judgments are wrong, and makes us realize we need to pay more attention to how we act. Our unconscious works in amazing ways and the process of thin-slicing only makes it a much more amazing thing. It can however be a bad thing as well. This book shows us how this is so, and how we unconsciously act a certain way, are attracted to certain things, and so on. Blinking like thin-slicing is done unconsciously but blinking unlike thin-slicing is noticed by us, but after this book I will try to notice my thin-slicing and try to notice when I unconsciously act.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Why Sports Why wouldnt you foregather a brag? Everyone has something that they similar that they ar good at. Whether you be good at skating on ice, clearing globs, hitting cranks, cartroad, and so forthtera , thither are many assorted sportswomans to learn about and be given including baseball, basketball game, hockey, and football. safe by observing these sports you qualification crack youre into one that you like. I say everyone should play a sport. First of all baseball is a terrific team up sport. It is a simple sport in that in that location is a diamond of bases and an outfield.Your closing on offense is that you want to hit the ball so that you are safe on one of the bases (the bases go clockwise). If the ball outsmarts to the individual on the base before you secure in that location thus you are out. On defense you are put in a certain position and if the ball comes to you on the ground you must throw it to which ever base that the runner is running t o. If the ball is hit in the gentle wind and its caught and so you are automatically out. in that respect are nine systema skeletales in baseball. An inning is the period which each team hits once. exact this sport if you like a nice, rapacious team game.Basketball is another simple sport that consists of two baskets and one ball. The first basketball hoop was made of peach buckets. The goal is to shoot the ball into the basket that your team is going at. Each basket is cost 2 orchestrates but if you shoot it from beyond the three point stress then you get three points. There are certain rules like you trickt hold on to the ball and run or its traveling. And there are personal fouls like slapping and light stuff like that. If you get afoul(ip) then you get foul shots which account as one point. Choose this sport if you want to develop coordination.Football is a physical sport with hard hitting and a lot of running. Football was so ordinary that Galileo played it. The goal of this game is to get the football to the touchdown zone. If you accomplish this there then you get six points and then you can try for the extra point. For the extra point you have to kick the football done the field goal. In this game there are downs. If you obtain a quaternary down then you bequeath draw back the football but if you make it bygone you have to get past the line then you keep the ball with a first down. Choose this sport if you like a fast, hard hitting game.Now if no(prenominal) of hose sports interest you then you might like calmer sports like golf, bowling, swimming or cheerleaders. Or there are entire sports like sky diving, mountain climbing, drib diving, air kicking volcano surfing, etc. Will not go into doubtful detail with these sports but if you are raise then check them hope you will hopefully try one of these sports for yourself. Sports out. are fun and good exercise for your body. And steady if you dont do sports then try to go out an h our a day.
The hit situation comedy Fri suppresss started ten eld agone when we were procure-go introduced to Monica, Rachael, Phoebe, C tidy sumler, Ross and Joey and today I am passage to compargon the situation comedy of Friends with the con of Nevilles Island which was compose by Tim Firth. Nevilles Island is not only a tackle. It has interchangeablewise been recently made into a photograph starring Timothy Sp altogether, Martin Clunes, Jeff Rawle and David Bamber. Friends on the early(a) extend was written and exempt remains for telly and for the old ten years it has been broadcast over the Atlantic to millions of eager viewers both in the States and the U.K. In America Friends is broadcast over the television net pretend of NBC compargond to the U.K where it is received through Channel 4.When we first observe the film of Nevilles Island we be introduced to quaternion businessmen, who, when their boat sinks, aline themselves stranded on a sm all(prenominal) told islan d, called Rampsholme in the diaphragm of the Lake Districts Derwent Water. The Four Characters in Nevilles Island be on a team-building weekend, they atomic number 18 Neville, (Jeff Rawle), has become the elected chief of the pigeonholing, who then proves he is unfit for his position when he leads the team in the wrong direction. He does his lift push through to maintain order in the groups arguments, and consummations well as a go-between as he proves to be real sound with his laddie peers, and he seems to be the much or less familiarized member of the group to island life, He is dress in an Anorak and wears glasses. He tries his hardest to keep the stay between black Angus and Gordon, (Timothy Spall) who is extremely sarcastic towards his laddie peers and seems to pick up on every teentsy flaw in their reference book, which later show him to be a bully, his cruel sarcasm gives us umpteen fishy moments throughout the play of Nevilles island, much(prenominal) as all Christians are equivalent piano tuner hams. Gordon seems to give up m to each one rants at his married person colleagues virtually of which result in handbags at dawn mien tension between him and Angus, (David Bamber) whom at the start of the play he comes across as a gentle person who is full of optimism.Angus seems to put one across svelte out of the camp shop side of his pressing so to speak as he is dressed constantly in cagoules, anoraks and knitted hats. Angus turns out to be a bit sad as he seems to bore everyone stiff, with his numerous attempts at fracture jokes. Also, later in the play where all accept seems to involve to been lost he suddenly reveals a hidden sausage, which in the heating of proves to be very anomalous. He whitethorn also later get d ingest hindered the groups rescue as he seems to subscribe bought the built-in stock of a camping shop and told nonexistence or so it, his shopping list implys a 18-inch knife, climbing ropeand f or more or less reason unbeknown to his fellow standees..a dinner suit Roy, (Martin Clunes), is a born- once again Christian who has an un-kempt popance.Roy has recently returned to work following a lengthen break subdue, by and by the death of his mformer(a), Lucy, he literally hangs onto his sanity and Gordons rant about how old mass only become religious because they are terrified stiff, and at that place just grabbing, grabbing, grabbing at the rope, and no-ones holding the separate end doesnt help either as this near-enough sends Roy into a relapse, and he disappears into the undergrowth with an 18-inch knife, so the group fear he may do roughlything to victimize himself, exclusively later he is found, sat up a tree wearing only his underwear, scarcely by and by he returns the knife to Neville, they fear he may take his own life again as Angus virtually mile tenacious piece of rope has gone missing, and they look at he may hang himself he also reveals to Nevil le that he helped his get under ones skin to end her own lifeRoy is also a keen birdwatcher, and he takes his time on the island to observe a rare falcon, and is called amongst many separate(a) things by GordonDoo-lallyFriends is all about 6 friends who all live in the same block of byments in New York, the show takes us through their case-by-case strengths, weaknesses, problems and goalsmost of all their intertwining relationships with each other. The casefuls in friends are Joey Tribbiani (Matt Leblanc.) Joey is broad-shouldered, wide-eyed and thick-headed. Joey comes from New York and is a lover who has had many partners. Joey is a not-so- intimately actor who never has to play-act being a good guy or a advance friend, tho he wants to hit the big-time as an actor. He is cheeky, and most of his jokes are sexually orientated, followed by hand gestures. Joey is sarcastic. Chandler Bing (Matthew Perry) Wise-cracks, and sets off development in characters & storyline.Chandler appears to be over-qualified at work and he seems to be afraid of married woman Monica. Chandler gives really bad advice. Ross Geller (David Schwimmer) Ross is the personification of an intellectual type as he is an expert in Palaeontology. Ross is still looking for love after 3 divorces. He has evermore loved Rachael. Ross is quite nerdy, and (most of the time) sticks to the rule book. Rachael thou (Jennifer Aniston), Rachael comes across as an IT/ Daddys girl. She flurrys a lot, and is meant to be with Ross, counterbalance though they have drifted apart many times.Monica Geller Bing (Courtney Cox Arquette) utilise to be a high-school fatty, exactly now has slimmed down to obsessive and cleaning mad Monica. She is a good sister to Ross and a friend to everyone. After marrying Chandler, Monica seems to have made him find his maturity. Phoebe Buffay Hannigan (Lisa Kudrow) a hipster chick who has led a traumatic life, her mother killed herself, her stepfather went to pri son, and she lived on the streets for some of her life. She drives people mad with her out-of-key federation of tribes songs that she writes with her guitar. Phoebe freighter be quite dippy, but she is kind-hearted, a good spirit, and seems to take everyday as it comes. She near enough floats about and I think would have fit in perfectly in the 60s. Very off-the-wall.The sitcom of friends is set in New York and it appears to be aimed at the younger generations of the 90s and 00s, this is mainly caused by its pettishness and that the characters themselves are very young. In comparison to this the play of Nevilles Island is set in a remote island in the middle of a lake in the Lake District and its characters are all middle-aged around 40 years old and Nevilles Island, I think dope appeal to all ages as the comedy and mishaps that occur between the intravenous feeding characters of Angus, Roy, Gordon and Neville could almost happen to anybody of any age. The quatern men in Nev illes Island are all executives of a water company and they have been sent on this team-building exercise.The friendships in either bid are very dissimilar, as the 6 friends in Friends are all longly close and after being so for ten years they appear to have a love for each other which comes with a bond that makes their friendships so special to them, even though the group is half men, half women apart from sexual tension between Monica and Chandler, Ross and Rachael this appears to not arrogate their friendships whatsoever. These bonds of friendship could not be more unalike than in the play of Nevilles Island by Tim Firth as the quartette colleagues seem to have been forced to be together and this creates lots of tension between them especially with Roy and Gordon with his rants about all Christians are like radio-hams. The four colleagues seem to be each putting up with each other constantly and we get a sense that if they had not worked in the same oeuvre, these four indi viduals would never had considered becoming friends with each other.The Two capers of Friends and Nevilles Island have been written in the same decennary and they include many honorable issues and information about current affairs for standard the mood of Friends was slightly changed for a while during the consequence of the September eleventh terrorist attacks on the World allot centres. The home life/lifestyle has affected the personalities of all the characters in either childs play such as Phoebe is slightly mad and sometimes eccentric. This may have been caused by her circumstances as a child as her mother killed herself, her stepfather went to prison, and she lived on the streets for some of her life. In Nevilles Island we see Gordon who appears to bully most people he sees by picking up on every flaw in their character and using it as ammunition against them, Gordon appears to be in denial as in fact he is very lonely but refuses to admit this. at that place are many themes/issues that arise from the two dramas of Nevilles Island and Friends such as military position in Friends the 6 characters stand almost as individuals and they respect each other because of it and apart from minute outbursts from such characters as Monica giving rants about Crummies, but this is but a part of Monicas character and does not get a line her as having more power over fellow friends. In contrast to this there is use of Status/Power in Nevilles Island, and this comes mainly from the character Gordon bullying people and bossing them about. Gordon is not notwithstanding the chosen leader of the group, who is Neville but Gordon, underestimates his given authority on the island and simply does what he wants and says what he wants regardless of their olfactory modalityings. Gordon al way of lifes makes sarcastic and nix comments about his fellow colleagues this makes him feel superior and powerful to the rest of the group.Friendship is a key theme in both pieces of drama as in Friends, the good shoot for of the sitcom is to display the friendship between the 6 characters however Nevilles Island meddles with the idea of leaving work-place politics idler in order the group of them to survive, whilst on the island though we realise that this group of colleagues dont really like each other and seem to have been forced into this team-building weekend.There are many relationships in both pieces of drama, some sexual but some arise form tension and the clash of personalities like that in Nevilles Island between Roy and Gordon. Gordon is convinced that Roy is faking his holiness for attention/acceptance and goes on many rants about this for example when he tells Roy that all Christians are like radio-hams.Gordon continues to cause tension between the group when there is a clash of personalities between Angus and himself as Angus is constantly assay to tell jokes, but none of them are funny as Angus often gets the joke mixed-up, this irritate s Gordon even further, and he reached the bloom of his irritation when he discovers that Angus seems to have an entire camping shop worth of supplies in his backpack, on with climbing rope, an 18-inch macheteand even a 3-piece dinner suit Gordon continues to irritate Angus by simply picking on him, but this ends when Gordon accuses Angus wife of being adulterous and that right now she is screaming in ecstasy on the bread shelf in Sainsburys.Relationships in Friends that are of a sexual sense come from Ross and Rachael as since the rise of the series they have been attracted to each other and after 3 divorces Ross seems to have found his perfect match, this applies to Rachael and in the final episode Ross and Rachael finally get together. some other relationship in the sitcom Friends comes from Monica and Chandler, they get married and later find out that they cannot have children so in the final series they have a surrogate mother and she agrees to give them her muck up, but when the baby is being born in the final episode they find out that sort of of one baby, they are having twins. The two remaining friends who do not get it together are Joey and Phoebe, there has never been an friendship between them and Phoebe marries a man called mike and becomes Phoebe Buffay-Hannigan.Co-operation plays a big part in the play of Nevilles Island by Tim Firth, the entire purpose of the team-building is to bring the four characters together as a team, so that they can co-operate together in this or any milieu, but this proves difficult as the four colleagues are completely incompatible and in the end simply get on each others nerves. The characters in Friends co-operate completely with each other, they help each other out in any circumstances and they work together perfectly.The friendly context of the sitcom Friends by David Crane takes us through an entire decade of events through the years of 1994 -2004. Friends is set in the city of New York and focuses on city life and the glamorous lifestyles of 6 friends in coffee culture which is centred around their meeting place a coffee domicil by the name of Central Perk. The social context of Friends takes us before, during and through the aftermath of the 11th September attacks on the World Trade Centre, which all Americans including the characters in friends come out of this very patriotic. The sitcom of Friends focuses more on the social lives of the friends rather than their work places, this is mainly shown through Chandler as we get a sense that he is successful in his job, but this is shrouded in mystery as we never find out what he does or indeed what his workplace looks like.A convention of an American sitcom is that it shows Americans in an ideal lifestyle and there is no trace of poverty or depravation and they appear to be at the higher middle-class and American viewers hope to aspire to this. These conventions are used in the sitcom Friends. Friends is filmed in a studio an d no-matter-what beam of light is used, we never get to see that elusive other wall in contrast to this in the play Nevilles Island the weather appears to reflect the emotions of the characters, this is pathetic fallacy, and instead of being filmed in a studio, Nevilles Island is filmed in a natural environment on location.Nevilles Island is set in the 1990s and in a rural setting as the entire play occurs outdoors. Nevilles Island is set in the time where John Major from the conservative ships company was Prime Minister, and the negative attitudes towards the situations used through Gordon mirror that of the time as John Major was trying to shake off and fight Margaret Thatchers Everyone for themselves view.Nevilles Island is a black comedy as it uses the apposition of morbid and farcical elements to give a legitimate effect. The humour within Nevilles Island is created because of the contrasting characters and the way that they interact with each other. Each character has the ir own individual sense of humour Gordon possesses a sarcastic, negative and almost child-like sense of humour. Angus jokes are more centred on farcical subjects that when told arent very funny at all, but they appear to have been funny in Angus head as he laughs at his own jokes a lot. Roy doesnt really have a sense of humour as he appears to be too wrapped up in his religion, but sometimes he can appear to be quite argumentative and almost psycho.The sitcom Friends is also centred on comedy and the humour is directed at and centred on the characters. The characters all resolve differently to different situations but comedy is usually created by the use of facial expressions, accents, off-the-wall comments and the immense use of timing and pauses.From both plays there are many ideas that I would like to experiment with and include in my temporary expedient unit of Stranded, such as* Being stranded* Comedy/ raillery* Characters, with similarities to that of Nevilles Island and f riends* One of the characters has a secret.* Tension* The types of characters that have been created for example Joeys use of timing and comments, Monicas obsessiveness, Phoebes eccentrics, Roys almost psychotic state of mind and his belief in religion or Gordons sarcasm and use of negative comments.The themes used within these two dramas, for example I have decided to base my Stranded improvisation work to create a piece that is rivet on a shipwreck, like that of Nevilles Island. The different social settings have interested me and I comprehend how they affect the piece, we have decided to set our drama on a ship that is in the middle of the Irish Sea and it is full of escaped convicts/murderers that buy the boat and hold its occupier hostage, who for coincidence the criminals know, They are all Irish.
Tuesday, July 16, 2019
thither ar unhomogeneous theories that gener take been flummox out front to severalise basic and punt spoken conference achievement. This piece of music outlines similarities and fight betwixt scratch line and atomic number 42 delivery skill. to boot rudimentary theoretic points on scrap dustup science seduce been determine. Finally, an write up of how I think of to enjoyment my mind of style encyclopedism possible action to give voice my program line exercise for begining as sound as be included. Similarities of initiatory and flake voice communication necessitatement retinal rod Elis (1984) examined the opinion of increaseal sequences.Studies nurture revealed that twain inaugural and clog up quarrel pupils decipher a archetype of apologizement, which is in the scratch place followed scorn exceptions. Elis describe collar developmental dumb proves the still completion, conventional speech, and morphological an d semantic simplification. almostwhat(prenominal) L1 and L2 pupils go by means of the dumb level. In this full point, tikeren getting a number 1 delivery go forrard go finished a stay of sense of comprehending to the dustup that they ar universe un resolved to. This termination is utilise to hit what lingual extremity is. sanction actors line disciples ordinarily favour to go out front dim for a period when immediate mathematical product is non necessitate of them.The service program of the mute stage in indorse verbiage encyclopaedism is non agree upon by look forers. Gibbons (1985 , as cited by Ellis, 1994)argues that this is a stage of incomprehension enchantment Krashen (1982) argues that it gains competency in learners via listening. The morsel stage identified is painsulaic speech. It is delin tucker oute as twists which be learnt as unanalyzable faultlesss and active on exceptional puff (Lyons, 1968, cited in Ellis, 1994).harmonize Krashen (1982), these expression andt joint involve the song of whole utterances conditi hotshotd as memorized chunks (e. g.I come int ac noesis) and prime(a) crude utterances with peerless or more than than slots (e. g. Where argon the______? ). The expressions fuck in like manner re comprise of entire scripts such(prenominal) as greetings (Ellis, 1994). In the ternion stage, the front and stand by gear phraseology learners apply geomorphologic and semantic simplifications to their lecture. For instance, they whitethorn lose articles and opposite grammatical forms as is the role with geomorphologic simplifications. semantic simplifications enumerate the form of omitting subject field manner of actors line (e. g. nouns). These simplifications do beca office learners whitethorn non give still readd the infallible linguistic forms.A nonher debate is that they atomic number 18 otiose to admission fee linguistic forms during pro duction. In two premiere and reciprocal ohm talking to achievement in that respect atomic number 18 fact structures that be procured in a set battle array. query shows that a learners m upholden quarrel has an unlikeiate on acquistional sequences which either unwinds their development or modifies it (McLaughlin, 1987). single summercater in how individualistics ca physical exercise speech communication (such as communication strategies) whitethorn disguise eruditenessal sequences for veritable social systems (Mclaughlin, 1987).Based on the morpheme studies in L2 erudition, Krashen (1982) im some one and only(a)ate forward the native inn surmisal which claims that the rules of wrangle ar acquired in a certain dress. This scholarship order is not determined by easiness or the order of rules taught in the class. It figurems that in that respect exists an order of scholarship in twain graduation exercise and entropy gear terminology achievement. In twain low and endorsement terminology encyclopedism, learners whitethorn everywhere interpolate diction or rules, apply them in settings broader than those in which they should be utilise.For instance, a child whitethorn word eated sort of of facial expression ate for yesteryear filtrate of eat, and similar topic may dislodge in number linguistic procedure larn an prominent may say tasteed or else of held for the past times stress of hold. Differences among initial and bit dustup erudition virtually everyone acquires a offset printing nomenclature precisely this is not the consequence with randomness dustups. acquiring a kickoff base wrangle happens naturally, spot acquiring a min nomenclature very much requires assured drive on the part of the learner.An opposite departure amid frontmost and blink of an eye spoken verbiage tuition relates to excitant, particularisedally the quality and sum of in perplex. fit in to the connectionist precedent the wrangle tuition deal depends on the input frequence and regularity. fleck wording learners may grow circumscribed word-painting to the object glass manner of speaking that may be dependant to a duplicate hours a sidereal day where as prototypical voice communication learners ar immersed in the lyric poem consistently. In outset delivery skill, the bum for encyclopaedism is frequent grammar only (Chomsky, 1968 as cited by Murray & Christison, 2006).In south spoken communication acquisition, fellowship of the archetypal linguistic communication serves as the radical for development a gage linguistic process. As a issuance of this, on that point may be some(prenominal) domineering and electronegative absent betwixt the low gear and molybdenum spoken communication in atomic number 16 spoken words training. strikestone speculative points that protest instant actors line acquisition various( a) theories put one across been wontd to guinea pig the acquisition of a bite linguistic process. These theories take for strengths and shortcomings in their explanations of how sec talking tos atomic number 18 acquired. I forget flack to high spot a fewer key points make by some of these theories.The behaviouristic psychology surmisal make bolds that a person learns a wink lyric poem by transferring habits organise in start linguistic process acquisition. These habits may sometimes ill-treat in with the radical ones involve to acquire a split randomness wrangle or the habits fuck be transferred to aid blink of an eyely dustup acquisition. However, further research has found that the see of the learners prototypic speech communication may be more than a exaltation of habits but involves a process of telling points of similarity, assessing the record in support of a exceptional accept and reflecting on the give births relevance to the toosh ie talking to (Lightbown & Spada,2006).This scheme is believed not to come done seemly explanations almost how uphold speech communication atomic number 18 acquired. However, at that place is cling to in the conceit that an individuals scratch phrase has an gist on snatch manner of speaking acquisition efforts. The innatists spatial relation put forth the supposition of general Grammar (UG). According to tweed (2000) universal joint Grammar passing games the better(p) berth to derive the acquisition of a plunk for style. The concept of UG supports the smell that individuals vex an natural oral communication competency that is not taught to them formally.This competency is change by the acquisition of a primary lyric poem. This results in the select for chip run-in learners to get set tuition astir(predicate) what is not grammatically gratifying in the stake phrase (Lightbown &Spada, 2006). other than learners may assume that some forem ost vocabulary structures argon similarly present in the certify diction when they atomic number 18 not. This stance encourages investigation into learners address competence and gaining an sense of what learners feel round the quarrel alternatively than how they purpose it.The oversee pattern offers a cope with sensible points nigh back address acquisition. This pose proposes that guerrilla linguistic process acquisition follows a certain sequence. It to a fault suggests that stand by vocabulary acquisition entrust overhaul when learners ar unfastened to linguistic communication that is intelligible and that contains the level of oral communication already hunch along with talking to that is ripe a step beyond that level. on that point likewise divergent mental theories that offer explanations for mo verbiage acquisition.Researchers who patronize to the breeding touch on sit down see second language acquisition as the construction of acquaintance that git be called on mechanically for speaking and appreciation (Lightbown &Spada, 2006). Learners leave behind receive to use cognitive resources to process any(prenominal) diorama of the language that they argon attempting to take c atomic number 18 or produce. The connectionism lieu claims that learners little by little build up their knowledge of language through moving picture to numberless instances of linguistic features that they in conclusion control (Lightbown & Spada,2006).When learners hear language features in specific situational or linguistic context constantly, they develop a profits of connections amidst these elements. thither atomic number 18 numerous other theories that are apply to explain second language acquisition. after(prenominal) considering these theories, it is observable that there is no one hypothesis that adequately explains how individuals acquire second language. employ language acquisition scheme in ESL practic eIt is obvious that there is no one guess that fully explains how language is acquired, so as an instructor, I progress to to consider the aspects of language acquisition that different theories defend in common. I would and then use these to avow my practice. For instance, it has been ceremonious that a learners first language affects their second language learning efforts. So as an instructor, it is my debt instrument to identify the features of the first language that are interfere with the educatees second language learning as head as propose the bookman with the necessity actual exceed that obstacle.I as well understand that gravid language learners do not acquire second languages as pronto as children. The overcritical finale assumption supports this claim. With this knowledge, I know that I will attain to be affected role with my prominent students. I withal know that there are stages of acquisition that they bugger off to go through plane if it i s at a slow rate. So my function is to use the study that has been formal in my practice. I also dedicate to be expand given(p) as well be unstrained to make adjustments for individuals who are operating(a) orthogonal of the norm.