Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Ethical Issues in the Pharmaceutical Industry - 2511 Words

Running head: ETHICAL ISSUES IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY Ethical Issues in the Pharmaceutical Industry Abstract No one can deny that the pharmaceutical industry has made significant contributions to human progress. The pharmaceutical industry has been responsible for drugs that have saved millions of lives, cured many forms of cancer, and ensured that an AIDS diagnosis is no longer an automatic death sentence. Yet despite this there are questions that the public has on whether the industry has been fulfilling their social responsibility. There are many ethical questions that need to be addressed on how the pharmaceutical industry can be a better corporate citizen, and how the public can also ensure that when they go to the†¦show more content†¦203). The gift giving practices are not limited to just the primary care physicians. This practice is extended to nurses as well as medical students. Medical education is very expensive and the medical student is more vulnerable and more apt to be enticed by the gifts and generosities as well as the influence of the pharmaceutical representative. â€Å"Studies conducted by the University of Toronto conclude that more than 80% of surveyed students had received at least a book and in some cases much more† (Kerridge, Komesaroff, 2002, p. 119). Nurses as well have become a more significant target of the pharmaceutical companies. â€Å"Some cite the reason behind this as being related to the increase in nurses who have the authority to prescribe† (Crock, 2009, p. 202). Even if a nurse does not have the authority to prescribe drugs, they are still heavy influencers in the decision making process of how to best treat the patent and possibly what drug to prescribe. What makes a nurse a prime target for the pharmaceutical representative is that most nurses do not have the funds or financial support to develop their own careers. One single donation from a drug company can easily fund a seminar featuring a speaker, catered lunches or dinners, a full bar and any other sort of entertainment. This will go a long way in nurses encouraging others in their profession to attend these conferences. In what can be described as a blatant case of conflict of interest, some nursingShow MoreRelatedEthical Issues Within The Pharmace utical Industry Essay1297 Words   |  6 Pagescover ethical issues within the pharmaceutical industry, present opinion on Direct-to-Consumer marketing by drug companies, determine the parties responsible for regulation of compounding pharmacies, PharmaCARE used U.S. law to protect its own intellectual property, summarize at least one current example of intellectual property theft, analyze the potential issues surrounding the death of John’s wife, and lastly present major arguments that John can claim as a whistleblower. Ethical issues withinRead MoreEthical Issues Within The Pharmaceutical Industry Essay2287 Words   |  10 Pagescover ethical issues within the pharmaceutical industry, present opinion on Direct-to-Consumer marketing by drug companies, determine the parties responsible for regulation of compounding pharmacies, PharmaCARE used U.S. law to protect its own intellectual property, summarize at least one current example of intellectual property theft, analyze the potential issues surrounding the death of John’s wife, and lastly present major arguments that John can claim as a whistleblower. Ethical issues withinRead MoreEthics779 Words   |  4 PagesEthics in the Pharmaceutical Industry Business Law Ivy Tech Community College Tamara Baxter September 20, 2013 The pharmaceutical industry has a difficult task when it comes to doing the right thing, put people or profits first (Weber, 2006). To keep their operations operating they must approach a duties-based ethical approach because the lives of their stakeholders are literally at risk. A religious ethical standard would mean not to falsely proclaim that a drug does somethingRead MoreThe Ethical Marketing Strategy Of Pharmaceutical Advertising1451 Words   |  6 PagesWhat are some of the ethical issues associated with this marketing strategy? Pharmaceutical advertisements has been the subject of deliberation for more than a century. Pharmaceutical advertising and marketing make up a large fragment of the activities of pharmaceutical corporations. These publications can be extremely informative as long as they are analytically evaluated. However, the data enclosed in promotional material may be scant or erroneous. Assuredly, the pharmaceutical marketing activitiesRead MoreEthical Q uestion of Gift-giving in the Pharmaceutical Industry1542 Words   |  6 Pagesthe Pharmaceuticals industry, between Medical sales consultants and healthcare professionals ethical or unethical? In â€Å"Relationships Between Health Professionals and Industry: Maintaining a Delicate Balance†, published in Australian Prescriber Magazine, Professor of Medicine Paul A Komesaroff describes how to maintain an ethical relationships between health professionals and the sale consultants and argues that there are four ways to achieve this relationship: Government regulations, industry regulationsRead MorePharmaceutical Industry Legality Essay705 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿ Specify the types of country risks that pharmaceutical firms face in international business. How do the political and legal systems of countries affect the  global pharmaceutical industry? The different types of country risks for the pharmaceutical firms are: 1. Pricing: Many Asian and African countries are poor and cannot afford the costly medicines. The Pharmaceutical firms spend vast amounts on RD in creating and marketing drugs, thus charging high prices enables for costRead MoreThe Ethical Appropriateness Of Direct Consumer Advertising Of Drugs Essay1246 Words   |  5 Pagesjudgement on the ethical appropriateness of direct consumer advertising of drugs? I believe in the case where pharmaceutical companies are advertising with television commercials or paid advertisements within magazines are well within moral and good ethical standards. Consumers can choose to remain on the same television channel or read an advertisement within a magazine to become more educated about a specific pharmaceutical. However, in the case referenced in the article, where a pharmaceutical companyRead MoreMedicine, Health Care, And Philosophy Essay1220 Words   |  5 Pagesthe issues in the health care industry. However, this publication is more directed towards professionals than the public. 6. Who is the audience of this publication (in terms of the traits we discussed in class—age, gender, income level, etc.)? The audience of this publication would be graduate students, doctorates, and any physicians. They can be any gender, and a predicted income level of high 5 figure or 6 figure salary. A person without sufficient knowledge in the health care industry wouldRead MoreDrugs and Ethics Essay example1150 Words   |  5 PagesEthics and law do not always go hand in hand. Not every law is ethical, and even if a law is considered ethical on its surface, it may result in unethical outcomes. Ethics refers to well-founded standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues.† The pharmaceutical industry confronts several dilemmas every year. Most of these dilemmas revolve around money or whether or not to sacrificeRead MoreEthics Of The Health Care Industry995 Words   |  4 Pages Ethics in the health care industry are one of the most important cornerstones of patient care. Making ethical decisions, being vigilant in the lack of ethical decision making, and being proactive in the reporting and advancement of ethical practices are important factors for marketing professionals such as physicians and other health care professionals to be wary of. Conduct by pharmaceutical representatives and ethical practices in the marketing of pharmaceutical drugs have been revamped over

Monday, December 16, 2019

Memory Test Outcomes Differences Naive and Non-Naive...

Memory Test Outcomes: Differences? Naà ¯ve and Non-Naive participants using Levels of Processing Test Abstract 90words Introductions 450 Many researchers have tried to unravel the mystery of memory in the brain. Early popular theorist Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) proposed that memories are kept in the brain in â€Å"stores† or rather locations where the information is held. They suggest that new information detected from the environment enters to the sensory memory. If attention is paid, the information then flows to the short term memory (STM). Thereafter, information must be rehearsed in order to lock it into the long term memory (LTM). This multi store model is a classic model of memory. In 1970’s, memory researchers†¦show more content†¦Material: Coglab 2.0 on a CD (Francis, Neath Vanhorn, 2008) Level of Processing Test Procedure:The test was done in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of 60 judgement tasks. Three type of judgement tasks were randomly mixed. First judgement was to decide correct pattern of consonants and vowels to a word. Second judgement was deciding if two words rhyme. Third judgement task was to decide if the words appeared are synonyms. Participants were to press the / key for ‘yes’(agree) answers and the z key for ‘not’(disagree) answers for all the three judgement tasks. Participants moved to the next task by pressing the space bar. Phase 2 of the test was the memory recall test. A 120 word series was shown, one after the other. At every interval participants were to decide if the word appeared in phase 1. Only half of the words appeared were in phase 1. The operative key press is the same as phase 1. At the end of the test, the raw scores on memory accuracy and the explanation of the test will be made available to the participant. Results 190 |MIXED DESIGN |LEVEL OF PROCESSING | | | |SHALLOW |DEEP | | |NAIVETY |NAIVEShow MoreRelatedThe PFC, Executive Function, and Dysfunction Essay2534 Words   |  11 Pageswhich is associated with perceptual integration, and associates with the premotor cortex, the cerebellum, and basal ganglia, all which help, regulate movement and motor control. The PFC additionally connects to those structures, which are critical for memory and include the thalamus, and hippocampus. Furthermore, the PFC connects to the hypothalamus, which regulates homeostasis, with the amygdala, which regulates human relations. Finally, the PFC is reciprocates with brain stem nuclei responsible forRead MoreCognitive Resilience in Adulthood9822 Words   |  40 Pagespropose that (a) engagement, a sustained investment in mental stimulation, and (b) personal agency, which enables one to construct a niche for successful life span development, constitute the centerpiece of cognitive resilience. Numerous factors at the level of the individual and the sociocul tural context set the stage for engagement and agency, thereby contributing to life span cognitive resilience, which can in turn impact factors promoting engagement and agency (e.g., health management, dispositionRead MoreOnline Crime Reporting System17148 Words   |  69 Pagesbe managed. No human society has ever been totally free of deviants and it is unlikely that society will ever be. The more populated and complex a society becomes the wider the range of anti-social conduct that must be controlled by government using police power. The incident-based system reports on a much broader range of crimes and includes data on the circumstances of the crime, the victim, and the defendant. The current crime reporting system is faced with several difficulties as there isRead MoreMr Zhang42340 Words   |  170 Pagesconsidering the issuance of stock to the public. Write a report discussing tests of controls for clients that are public companies compared with those that are not public companies. If Lakeside were to become a public company, what impact would that have on Abernethy and Chapman s tests of controls? Objective – Comparison of internal auditing in the general case and in the public case. (7-1) The case assumes that tests of controls have been completed and substantive testing in the payroll areaRead MoreCloud Computing Security67046 Words   |  269 Pagesdisplay on your computer, view, print, and link to the Cloud Security Alliance Guidance at subject to the following: (a) the Guidance may be used solely for your personal, informational, non-commercial use; (b) the Guidance may not be modified or altered in any way; (c) the Guidance may not be redistributed; and (d) the trademark, copyright or other notices may not be removed. You may quote portions of the Guidance as permitted by the FairRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words   |  960 PagesCommerce (A): The Role of the Operating Manager in Information Systems 10 PART I Information Technology Chapter 2 Computer Systems 17 19 Basic Components of Computer Systems 20 Underlying Structure 20 Input/Output 20 Computer Memory 21 Arithmetic/Logical Unit Computer Files Control Unit 23 23 25 The Stored-Program Concept 25 Types of Computer Systems 28 Microcomputers 29 Midrange Systems 30 Mainframe Computers Supercomputers 33 34 Key TypesRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. 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Whitman Chap 0118683 Words   |  75 Pagessecurity—that is, the need to secure physical locations, hardware, and software from threats— arose during World War II when the first mainframes, developed to aid computations for communication code breaking (see Figure 1-1), were put to use. Multiple levels of security were implemented to protect these mainframes and maintain the integrity of their data. Access to sensitive military locations, for example, was controlled by means of badges, keys, and the facial recognition of authorized personnel by

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Poets often write about ideas through exploring emotions Essay Example For Students

Poets often write about ideas through exploring emotions Essay Poets often write about ideas through exploring emotions. In light of this comment, examine ways in which poets develop their ideas through feelings and emotions. You should write about a least two poems including the darkling thrush or gods grandeur, or both. To explore this comment, I am going to analyse two poems, The Darkling Thrush, by Thomas Hardy, and Gods Grandeur, by Gerard Manley Hopkins. In The Darkling Thrush, Hardy gives a very negative image. He uses phrases such as when frost was spectre-grey, and The Centurys corpse outleant, which give the reader the image of death. In this poem Hardy is talking about the death of the 19th century as it moves into the 20th Century. The poem itself was written on the 31st December 1899, the turn of the Century. Hardy shows the narrator as having sad, grievous emotions throughout the poem. This is contrasted with the emotions of the thrush, which is portrayed to be celebrating, and happy. The narrator appears to have given up on life, which is shown through the comment And every spirit on earth seemed fervourless as I. On the other hand, the thrush which is shown as being towards the end of its life in the verse an aged thrush, frail, gaunt and small, seems to be holding on to all it can. The narrators comment shows his opinion on the time in the verse so little cause for carolings. The thrush however is in the process of giving a full-hearted evensong, which is giving the impression that there was everything to live for. In this poem, Hardy develops his feelings and emotions from the third verse of the first stanza. He shows that the winter is bleak, and not much good can come from it. The second stanza again gives the very negative impression, giving the imagery of a funeral scene to start with. This personification of the new year and new century as though it is dead gives the idea of a very bleak future. The poem then gives an indication that it is every person on earth that feels this way, not just the narrator. The feelings are very disheartening, which may be a reflection of the general feeling of the people of Britain at the time with the industrial revolution having just occurred, and people being cooped up in factories all day long. The thrush however, represents the possibility of new hope, which the poet is unaware of. The last two verses show this. Some blessed hope, whereof he knew And I was unaware. The poet here is showing a sense of desperation, saying please be a hope that I dont know of yet. The ABAB rhyme scheme gives the poem a continuation throughout, with the feelings and emotions being carried on from the beginning to the end of the poem. In many of the verses, enjambment occurs, which carries on the emotion, whether that is the sad emotion of the poet or the happy emotions of the thrush, onto the next verse. In contrast to this poem is Gods Grandeur. In this poem, Hopkins is giving the impression of a beautiful thing that has been destroyed by man, but which recovers due to the presence of a greater being, God. The poem is in the form of a sonnet. It gives both positive and negative emotions throughout. The first few verses talk about the greatness of the world, the creation of God. These verses do not convey any real emotion, they give an idea of greatness in the world. The fourth verse however, conveys despair in the question why do men now not reck his rod? This is saying, why do men wreck the world? The next few verses are also conveying desperation. They are showing the mark that men have left on the earth. The word trod gives the impression of heavy, damaging steps, while the word toil gives the idea of trouble and conflict. .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .postImageUrl , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:hover , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:visited , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:active { border:0!important; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:active , .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u356c3222590125efcffb828fdba3e61e:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The analyzation of the Great Gatsby EssayAll of the first stanza is conveying desperation at the state man leaves the what was beautiful creation of God, in the state that it is in. It gives the idea that man is ruining the earth for himself. The second stanza starts on a more positive note. The first verse is And for all this nature is never spent. It conveys the idea of new hope. It is showing that despite mans attempt to wreck the world, nature always returns to its original state. The last verse, World broods with warm breast and with ah! bright wings, gives the impression of the world reproducing. The poem starts off conveying emotions of despair and hopelessness, with man wrecking what was once a beautiful creation of God, but being left damaged and possibly beyond repair. The second stanza contrasts to this with the idea of fresh hope being given. The world that man has wrecked is repaired by the power, grace and grandeur of God. The rhyming couplets in the first stanza give the suggestion of heaviness as man goes through the world, while the ABAB rhyme scheme in the second stanza portrays the thought that things slowly start to return to their original state.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

This Week We Offered A Plan To End Welfare As We Know It

This week we offered a plan to end welfare as we know ita plan that will encourage personality and help strengthen our families through tougher child support, more education and training, and an absolute requirement to go to work after a period of time. -Bill Clinton, radio address, 6/18/94 The welfare system is in deep distress. From the time of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to the current reigning of Bill Clinton, many a bills have been brought for to reform it. Originally, Roosevelt established the system as a type of government stripend to financially challenged individuals; however, it was not intended to act as a dependent income for them (Tucker 45). Even though many changes have been made over the past three years, it has not made much of an impact on the problems at hand (Pear). Officials discovered that many welfare recipients misuse the benefits. Studies have shown that the welfare system should begin by providing job placement, ending benefits for illegitimacy, and educating the young. First, the aspect of job placement is directly related to the misuse of welfare. In order to succeed at rising employment rates, current wages have to increase dramatically. A welfare check ranges form $5.53 to $17.50 an hour; in a like manner, minimum wage is less than an hourly welfare check (Tilly 8). People desire the higher money of a welfare check to that of a low-paying job (Tweedie 117; Tanner 18). This dependency on receiving the check causes many problems not just with the current generation, but future generations will also be similarly affected. These children are acquiring the habits of their parent or parents, thus creating a permanent underclass (Tucker 45). Economic incentives for staying on welfare should be abolished. People should no longer be allowed to remain on the system for extended periods of time. In accordance with the lesser incentives, the government should place more emphasis on raising the current hourly wage (Haskins 126). Most importantly, the government needs to portray a working world in which job training is not only the standard, but also the required (Tanner 17). Providing jobs with training not only educates the person, but also supplies him or her with opportunities to acquire a better paying job with a future (Willis 4). This training would not just teach skills, but it would make job development workers move more people into the mainstream (Garr 193). In Wisconsin, Republican legislators have devised a method of reform called W-2 Wisconsin Works. W-2 is a work program that would require all recipients over eighteen to work for cash assistance (Tweedie 117). Many welfare recipients are often stereotyped as lazy; moreover, these recipients need to take charge of their lives (Leavitt 22). They need to realize that they are capable of doing competent work. They hav e to compete to prosper. Second, illegitimacy needs to be curbed by stopping aid to promiscuous mothers who continue to have out-of-wedlock pregnancies. The establishment of anti-illegitimacy policies is imperative. These policies should propose to stop payment to unwed others (Haskins 126). The government should not reward for illegitimacy. According to Ron Haskins, Trying to help poor children by giving their underage mothers cash will often simply produce more poor children, reformers argued. Wise societies don't reward births outside of marriage in this way (Haskins 126). If a young woman becomes pregnant again, she does not have to make a choice between living at home with her parents or finding a husband. She simply can continue to produce more illegitimate children. This reoccurrence of illegitimacy is exactly one of the reasons that a stopping of incentives is needed (Tucker 45). In a like manner, the most effective way to reduce births is with a family cap. The family cap is a provision that denies greater cash to women who continue to have births while receiving welfare (Donovan 73). It is designed to discourage out-of-wedlock births (Sollom 41). The government needs to include a child exclusion provision like both China and Japan currently have (Donovan 73). Disincentives are required to act as the primary strategy for regulating poor women's reproductive behaviors (Sollom 41). This unorthodox behavior causes much strain on the welfare system, since the state rewards extra money for additional children. Third,

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

I Have This Story to Tell . . .

I Have This Story to Tell . . . Wherever I appear, invariably someone comes up to me and asks how they can get published. I open the dialogue with questions such as: 1) Have you finished writing the story? 2) Have you edited the story with a vengeance a zillion times? 3) Have you gotten feedback from non-friends and non-family who understand the genre? 4) Have you studied indie versus traditional and understand the details of both? Maybe I ask a few more questions depending upon the nature and interests of the person. We might delve into platform and online presence. But the eyes of half those writers interrupt or divert back into a long explanation about the story; why they are writing it; what its about; why it needs to be told. I gently pull them back to the original question about publishing, and learning the craft well enough to be worthy of publishing. Some come back with me. Then there are those who, like a rubber band, launch back into a dissertation about the story. Inevitably we part, with nothing accomplished other than the writer is happy they were able to talk about their story. We didnt really discuss much about writing well or publishing smart. While the person said they wanted to know those answers, they were too wrapped up in the story. They didnt want to hear the hard part of the journey. Theyre too busy enjoying the dream. I understand that to a point. They are living the story in their head. Its a great one to know, to tell. But all they want to know about the business after the writing is PUBLISH. They want a short cut from GOOD STORY IDEA to PUBLISH, without the details. The vast chasm that is writing, editing, developing a voice, and learning the business is considered a minor obstacle in the quest to get from point A to point B, not understanding theres a long journey of canyons, mountains, and hell/fire/brimstone in between. Keep in mind that writing is more about the craft than about the subject matter. A beautiful writer can write about anything. A mediocre writer with a good idea rarely makes it off the ground. The best advice I can give you is to learn how to write (take classes, join writers groups, hire an editor) then publish. Everyone has a journey, but not everyone takes the time to learn how to write it well. Fewer still learn how to put it into print so that the GOOD STORY IDEA can reach readers. Fall in love with your story, but fall in love with the other parts, too.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Peter the Hermit and the First Crusade

Peter the Hermit and the First Crusade Peter the Hermit was known for preaching Crusade throughout France and Germany and instigating the movement of common folk that became known as the Crusade of the Poor People. He was also known as Cucu Peter, Little Peter or Peter of Amiens. Occupations CrusaderMonastic Places of Residence and Influence Europe and France Important Dates Born: c. 1050Disaster at Civetot: Oct. 21, 1096Died: July 8, 1115 About Peter the Hermit Peter the Hermit may have visited the Holy Land in 1093, but it wasnt until after Pope Urban II made his speech in 1095 that he began a tour of France and Germany, preaching the merits of the crusade as he went. Peters speeches appealed not only to trained knights, who usually followed their princes and kings on a crusade, but to laborers, tradesmen, and peasants. It was these untrained and disorganized folk who followed Peter the Hermit most eagerly to Constantinople in what became known as The Peoples Crusade or The Crusade of the Poor People. In spring of 1096, Peter the Hermit and his followers left Europe for Constantinople, then moved on to Nicomedia in August. But, as an inexperienced leader, Peter had trouble maintaining discipline among his unruly troops, and he returned to Constantinople to seek assistance from Byzantine Emperor Alexius. While he was gone the bulk of Peters forces was slaughtered by the Turks at Civetot. Disheartened, Peter almost returned home. Eventually, however, he made his way to Jerusalem, and just before the city was stormed he preached a sermon on the Mount of Olives. A few years after the capture of Jerusalem, Peter the Hermit returned to France, where he established an Augustinian monastery at Neufmoustier. Resources The Crusade of the Poor People Catholic Encyclopedia: Peter the Hermit  - Concise biography by Louis Brehier. Peter the Hermit and the Popular Crusade: Collected Accounts  - Collection of documents taken from August. C. Kreys 1921 publication, The First Crusade: The Accounts of Eyewitnesses and Participants. The First Crusade

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Major trends today in the change in labour force Essay

Major trends today in the change in labour force - Essay Example There are basically seven major factors that motivate small and large companies in diversifying their workforces. These seven factors include the social responsibility, economic payback, resource imperative, legal requirement, marketing strategy, strategy related to business communications and strategy building. As a good diversity practice the people from disadvantaged groups of a community are considered and this relates to corporate responsibility of any business. Through diversification of the workforce the individuals can get a break required for earning a living. Diversification of workforce that is through welfare to work is likely to turn the tax users in tax payers. The changing demographics have greatly affected the workforce. The labor pool today includes people from various backgrounds and different life experiences. Under the legislation many companies round the world are observing equal employment opportunity that makes it best possible to utilize a workforce that is di verse. Nowadays in such a competitive world to fulfill a customer base that is extensive diverse it is very important to have a diverse workforce which is capable of making up for the customer base from every walk of life. For the companies that opt for retaining the homogenous workforces things are likely to become ineffective very soon. While recruiting the employees all the successful companies generally look for a diverse workforce and value them for their unique abilities and qualities. Analysis of Workforce Diversity Valuing and managing the workforce diversity is one of the key elements of effective management of people. This can ultimately enhance the workforce productivity and the overall performance of the company. The demographic changes like organizational restructuring, women in working places and the legislation related to equal employment opportunity require the companies a review of their management procedures and the development of new and innovative ways to manage people. Advantages of Workforce Diversity Diversity at the workplace has a lot of benefits that are discussed ahead. Workforce diversity is probable to lead towards an innovative and creative culture that has no limits. A diverse workforce can lead a profit making by ideas, creativity, innovation and exchange of knowledge (Esty, et al., 1995). An organization that has built up a rapport for diverse workforce is famous for attracting the best talent from all parts of the world. Marketing of products can be made easier as people with different backgrounds can come up with unique marketing campaigns that are likely to increase the sale. People from different areas speak different languages so the workforce that is diverse can understand and can develop better bonds with the customers as the company has employees that can speak various numbers of languages. Workforce diversity is also taken to play a crucial part in the effective solving of problems nowadays. By the diversity different talents are put together and different set of skills is used that increase productivity of the organization. By attracting and retaining the employees with diverse skills, competencies, talents, knowledge etc. the company is likely to win a competitive advantage. Diversity assists in building a synergy amongst teams and improves the communication skills. A lot of money can be saved by this diversification process as this is what the legislation of any country says. Challenges related to Workforce

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

TSA Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

TSA - Essay Example They also check and verify passengers’ travel documents. They keep a check on cargo buildings of companies that ship items on planes when there are no passengers aboard. A TSO cannot perform shift maintenance on equipment. He is trained three weeks in a classroom setting and needs to complete 80 hours of on-the-job training to become a TSO. Without TSOs, the security checkpoint could not be run properly and efficiently. The TSOs are only accountable for their own selves, whereas LTSOs and STSOs are held responsible for other officers in addition to their own actions. The next category is the Lead Transportation Security Officer (LSTO). He is the go-between for the TSOs and STSOs. LSTOs train entry level TSOs for their 80 hours of on-the-job training. LTSOs are the head of the exit lane. They keep the supplies stocked for the day for every security lane. They check planes making sure that there are no threats before the passengers board the plane. They can do all basic maintenance on equipment that is used daily, for example, they perform maintenance on the Explosion Trace Detector (ETD) to make sure it is detecting explosives. LTSOs report to the operation center any issues regarding the equipment that may raise doing the course of the day. An LTSO deals with passenger issues that a TSO could not have resolved. They are responsible for everyone on their lane such as they control and supervise passengers without using physical restraint. An LTSO cannot complete the daily operational paperwork as they do not have access to employee personal files. The last category is the Supervisory Transportation Security Officer (STSO) who is held accountable for every officer. STSOs are trained at TSO level because they are responsible for making sure that all officers are doing their job correctly. All officers get daily briefing from STSOs before going to their respective shifts. STSOs must complete all daily

Saturday, November 16, 2019

The themes and issues in Arthur Millers Essay Example for Free

The themes and issues in Arthur Millers Essay Whenever playing the part of Proctor you would have to get across to the audience that he is obviously outspoken and blunt in his view of witchcraft, but he chooses to downplay the significance of Abigails accusations. He has a tendency to remain apart from the rest of Salem, which is shown through his decision not to attend church, his rows with Parris and his facing up to the officials of the court. When acting therefore, a strong independence of character has to be shown. His tendency to remain apart from the group could be shown by the actor placing himself far away from the rest of the characters on the stage, except for Elizabeth who he truly loves and wants to please. There are individuals nowadays who, just like John, also remain far apart from todays society. These people are looked upon as being strange and odd as they question original ideas and produce their own. For example, people who think that abortions are wrong as seen as strange and peculiar. Some think it is wrong for people to have opinions for themselves and that they should stick to the rules but I think it is people like John, who stand out and get listened to, that keep our communities strong. Another side of Proctor, which would be difficult to portray on stage, is one of his greatest strengths: his manliness. I would consider this as being a challenge because although it is one of his strengths, it is also one of his weaknesses as it leads him to his affair with Abigail. The guilt he feels over this act of betrayal prevents him from speaking out soon enough and contributes to his eventual imprisonment and death. Hence, he dies a death engendered by his own strength, which gains in significance due to the weakness of others. Guilt is an emotion which most of us feel today and often affects decisions we have to make, just like the conflicts, which Proctor had to overcome. We can tell Proctor is a good man as he does what his conscience told him to do tear up the confession, which leads to his death. We also see Elizabeths actions when guilt overcomes her too. In act three she lies because she feels partly responsible for Johns looking elsewhere for love. Elizabeth is a woman who never lies but she is prepared to lie to defend Proctor because her love for him and her guilt over not treating him as well as she could. This is a good comparison on how guilt can make you react in different situations. When acting the part of Elizabeth a difference of attitude would have to be shown between act two and three. Is act two she is very suspicious of Proctor and it is obvious that she doesnt trust him which could be shown in her finding it hard to make eye contact with him and not being very affectionate towards him. In act three she feels so sorry about the way she had acted before and it is clear that she loves her husband very much.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Solar Energy Essay -- Essays Papers

Solar Energy Since the beginning of humanity, people have relied on the sun for their daily needs. Whether it is to grow the crops that they eat, dry clothes or warm their family, people have relied on the resource of the sun for sustainability. It was not until people started to get the idea of managing this energy source, that people were able to fully take advantage of the sun. In 1767, a Swiss scientist discovered a practical way to harness the energy of the sun. Horace de Saussure invented the â€Å"solar hot box,† the first devise to attract and capture the energy capabilities of the sun. The main uses of this primitive solar box consisted of cooking food, distilling water and pumping water for irrigation. It was not until the 1880’s that America caught on to this new source of energy. Introduced by John Ericcson, this engineer created solar power engines, used for power steam generators onboard ships. The most famous person credited with exposing solar capabilities to the west, however, was Clarence Kemp, the first man to patent solar water heaters in 1897. His invention caught on so well, that within seven years, thirty-percent of houses in California were using his invention. This was just the beginning of solar energy’s popularity within the US. In 1908, Carnegie Steel Company’s William J. Bailey produced the solar panels we are most familiar with today. The popularity of the solar power boom peaked around the end of World War I, when â€Å"more than 4,000 rooftop solar water heaters had been sold, and more than 60,000 were in place† (EIA). Shortly after this, scientists discovered the possibilities of solar energy in space. Even to date, many satellites and space projects take advantage of this renewable... ...olar energy has undergone many stages throughout its existence, especially within the United States. At the beginning of its discovery, carried out through its peak in popularity around the 40’s and 50’s, solar energy enjoyed its time in the spot light. Due to limits on where solar plants can be built, inefficiency, unreliability and high prices, the use of this fairly environmentally friendly, renewable energy source has dwindled. While some hope for advances in the methods of collecting solar energy, currently it does not have the ability to meet our world’s ever-growing consumption of energy. Works Cited - â€Å"Current Uses and Future Prospects.† . - Energy Information Administration (EIA). The U.S. Government.. - â€Å"Solar Power.† Energy Matters. .

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Coke & Pepsi learn to compete in India Essay

Timing of entry into the Indian market brought different results for PepsiCo and Coca-Cola India. What benefits or disadvantages accrued as a result of earlier or later market entry? Coca-Cola (1990) Benefits: advantages as „Early-Followerâ€Å", possibility to use reliable market information that ´s already existing take-over of standards position as international market leader Disadvantages: expert knowledge of competitors has to be overtaken gain trust of new customers as „anotherâ€Å" foreign company PepsiCo (1986) Benefits: early entry while the market is developing achievement of a good market position enforcement of product standards early impact on local producers (26% market share for Pepsi Food) Disadvantages: high costs for tapping a new market local demand for carbonated drinks very low at that time The Indian market is enormous in terms of population and geography. How have the two companies responded to the sheer scale of operations in India in terms of product policies, promotional activities, pricing policies and distribution arrangements? Coca-Cola Product policies: focus on all beverages that are non-carbonated Kinley Brand of bottled water introduction of new brands, introduction of new size „Miniâ€Å" Promotional activities: build a connection with the youth market Business plan: â€Å"Think local – act local†: Lucky draws where you can win a free trip to Goa, TV campaigns, employing local and regional festivals and sport events, building a connection with the youth: use of music and ballet, short films, work with actors and actresses Campaign slogan: †Cool means coca cola† Retail outlet â€Å"Red Lounge† where the youth can spent time and consume Coke products. Pricing policies: Low prices and later on even reducing of prices (Skimming pricing) Price bundles („Buy one – get one freeâ€Å") Distribution arrangements: Red Lounge Focus on Southern India Pepsi Product policies: bolstering non-cola portfolio and other categories: fruit juices juice-based drinks and water, introduction of new products Promotional activities: Sponsorship of garba, TV campaigns, employing local and regional   festivals and sport events, sponsorship of Cricket and Football as well as a music video with Bollywood stars. Pricing policies: aggressive pricing policy (impact on local producer Parle) Distribution arrangements: focus on northern and western parts of India Which of the two companies has better long-term prospects for success in India? Why? PepsiCo has better long-term prospects for success in India  earlier market entry than Coca Cola  non-cola portfolio makes one-fourth of the overall business in India (e.g. significant player in the packaged water market)   following the consumers lifestyle of sports and exercise through fitting advertisement not as bad as Coca-Cola involved in the pesticide accusation What lessons can each company draw from its Indian experience as it  contemplates entry into other big emerging markets? It’s not possible to transfer the complete marketing strategy from Europe or US to the Asian market. You have to know about the cultural and governmental   specifics of the market where you want to be successful. Communication policy: In India people interpret a policy of silence as guilt so the company has to get into a street fight if something wrong is published.  It’s important to know much about the local market: Which products are sold to which price? Who are the  market leaders? How aggressive is the competition?

Saturday, November 9, 2019


A1. Role of Enzymes in Processes Enzymes are organic catalysts that help to speed up the breakdown of a molecule, such as fructose. The enzyme helps a chemical reaction take place quickly so that the reaction happens properly. In order for that to happen the enzymes process by the lock and key model, the lock is the substrate and the enzyme is the key. The active sites are specific to a certain substrate of a molecule, so the enzymes only have one job to do. The shape of an enzyme is not changed or consumed during these reactions.However, without enzymes the reactions would take too long and would not breakdown properly. A2. Deficiency in Aldolase B In hereditary fructose intolerance there is a protein lacking that is needed to breakdown fructose. Aldolase B is the substance needed to breakdown fructose. Without the Aldolase B the body is not able to change glycogen into glucose that the body needs. When this happens an individual’s blood sugar can fall and substances will bui ld up in the liver causing more health issues.With an absence of the enzyme Aldolase B, fructose cannot be broken down causing hereditary fructose intolerance. Symptoms can be severe, â€Å"these include severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose or other sugars metabolized through fructose-1-phosphate. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic and/or renal failure and death. † (Haldeman-Englert, 2011) A4. Substrate The specific substrate acted on by Aldolase B is fructose-1-phosphate (F1P).This then is converted into DHAP and glyceraldehyde. Once the conversion is finished the product can enter the glycolysis cycle to from ATP or energy used for the body. â€Å"In normal cellular conditions, the primary enzymatic activity of aldolase B is to cleave fructose diphosphate (FDP). † (Roth, 2012) A5. Role of Aldolase B Aldolase B is the substance needed to breakdown fructose. Its specific role is to speed up t he breakdown process of fructose to a more usable from in the body.Aldolase B is primary found in the liver, but can also be found in the small intestines and kidneys. B1. Interconversions of Cori Cycle If the Cori Cycle occurred and then remained in a single cell, no useful metabolic work would be complete. The reason for this is that â€Å"if the Interconversions of the Cori Cycle were to take a place within a single cell it would constitute a â€Å"futile cycle† with glucose being consumed and resynthesized at the expense of the ATP and GTP hydrolysis. (Campbell & Farrell, 2008) If this were to happen the cycle would essentially be running in opposite directions, having no affect and wasting energy. Having both the glycolysis portion and the gluconeogenesis portion going at the same time, will result in glucose being converted in to pyruvate by glycolysis and then converted back to glucose by gluconeogenesis, all this will cause a use of ATP, not making. The cycle needs t o take place in order to produce ATP, an energy source for the body especially during muscle activity. B3.Defect Preventing Conversion of ADP to ATP Having a deficiency in the Citric Acid cycle can create the entire cycle to halt essentially. Having the citric acid cycle halt can create a build-up of lactic acid, decreasing the amount of oxygen getting to the tissues. Hypothetically the Citric Acid cycle is missing the enzyme malate; â€Å"Malic acid acts as a catalyst in the Kreb’s cycle to increase energy production from the burning of pyruvic acid. Malic acid also aids in exercise recovery by counteracting the build-up of lactic acid. (Ward, 2011) Missing the malic acid can create chronic fatigue, muscular myalgia, and arthritic-like pains. Any disturbances to the cycle can produce and contribute to neurological and physical problems. B4. Role of Coenzyme Q10 The role of Coenzyme Q10 in ATP synthesis is unique. It can function in every cell of the body to make energy; no other molecule can perform this function. The enzyme is very hydrophobic, so it can move freely within the cell membrane.Its special function is that is can accept and donate electrons, which plays a big role in the electron transport chain. â€Å"It accepts electrons generated during fatty acid and glucose metabolism and then transfers them to electron acceptors. At the same time, Coenzyme Q transfers protons outside the inner mitochondrial membrane, creating a proton gradient across that membrane. The energy released when the protons flow back into the mitochondrial interior is used to from ATP. † (Higdon, 2003)

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Using ONE example to illustrate your points, expla Essays (2138 words)

Using ONE example to illustrate your points, expla Essays (2138 words) Using ONE example to illustrate your points, explain how to evaluate a research study Plan Does the evidence to support claims Experimental design Sampling method and participants 3. Methodological problems and their implications/are there any contradictions or inconsistencies within data (Ecological validity and reliability) How are confounding variables are controlled? Representativeness Recognition of bias Is it reductionist? 4. Does it establish a cause-effect relationship 5. Does it extend current knowledge? Sample study: Loftus and Palmer (1974) An extensive evaluation of a psychological study consists of a thorough examination of its strengths and limitations.This consists of a critical analysis of the holistic experimental process of how the experiment was carried out, with particular emphasis to the methodology of the study. An example experiment conducted by Loftus and Palmer (1974), investigates whether language used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory. This hypothesis was tested by using leading questions to distort eyewitness testimony. The experimental design is the first approach to evaluating a psychological study. In this example, the experimental design for Loftus and Palmer (1974) was an independent groups design and was conducted in a rigorously controlled laboratory environment. Loftus and Palmer (1974), had five conditions where one of each was experienced by each participant (Mcleod 2017). The independent variable was the intensity of the verb to describe two cars in a traffic accident film; thus, the five groups were using the verbs "contact", "hit", "bumped", "collided" and "smashed". The strengths of using independent groups design are that more subjects can be used for the experiment rather than having the same subjects perform all the conditions of the experiment as in a repeated measures design. Using an independent groups prevents participant fatigue as the participants did not have to perform all five conditions, which could be a confounding variable affecting the results of the study. However, a disadvantage is that the differences between the participants, such as age, gender, or culture which could affect the results. This is because there can be inferences and judgement made from the studies which were rather "due to individual differences r ather than the independent variable condition" (Danshepherd 2012) . The second step is to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the sampling method and the participants used. The sampling method used in Loftus and Palmer's (1974) experiment used opportunity sampling. Although practical, using opportunity sampling can contribute to bias because it means using only the participants available at a given time and place rather than being representative of a general population. Furthermore, the participants used in Loftus and Palmer's (1974) experiment were all undergraduate students. Students are not representative of the general population and with regards to this experiment, they may be less experienced drivers and therefore, this would have altered their perception of the verb used when estimating speeds (Mcleod 2017). Lastly, the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology should be acknowledged when evaluating any psychology experiment. The implications of the choices taken by the researcher to control variables, and whether there were any inconsistencies with the data should be identified. Loftus and Palmer's (1974) experiment was a highly controlled laboratory experiment. Therefore, one argument made as a weakness is that the results are not ecologically valid because in real life, people do not watch films of an incident. Instead, they witness these incidents first hand. Therefore, the study conducted by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts this study by making the participants witness an incident first hand which "found that misleading information did not alter the memory of people who had witnessed a real armed robbery". (Mcleod 2017). However, due to the controlled nature of the experiment, it is reliable and easy to replicate. The confounding variables are easier to control in a laborato ry experiment. This prevents these extraneous variables affecting the results of the study. Hence, it is plausible to suggest a cause-effect relationship from the study. Using TEACUPs to evaluate theories Evaluate ONE theory from the BLOA and ONE theory from the CLOA using the TEACUP approach: BLOA theory: Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution Those who adapt best to environmental challenges will have a greater chance of survival, reproduction, and passing on genes. Natural selection refers to the idea that members of a species that survive competition and breed will

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Profile of the Prehistoric Archelon

Profile of the Prehistoric Archelon Name: Archelon (Greek for ruling turtle); pronounced ARE-kell-on Habitat: Oceans of North America Historical Period: Late Cretaceous (75-65 million years ago) Size and Weight: About 12 feet long and two tons Diet: Squids and jellyfish Distinguishing Characteristics: Leathery shell; wide, paddlelike legs About Archelon Dinosaurs werent the only animals that grew to immense sizes during the late Cretaceous period. At a whopping 12 feet long and two tons, Archelon was the one of the largest prehistoric turtles that ever lived (it used to be on top of the charts, until the discovery of the truly stupendous Stupendemys of South America), about the size (and shape, and weight) of a classic Volkswagen Beetle. By comparison with this North American behemoth, the largest Galapagos tortoises alive today weigh a little over a quarter of a ton and measure about four feet long! (The closest living relative of Archelon, the Leatherback, comes much closer in size, some adults of this seagoing turtle weighing close to 1,000 pounds.) Archelon differed significantly from modern turtles in two ways. First, its shell wasnt hard, but leathery in texture, and supported by an elaborate skeletal framework underneath; and second, this turtle possessed unusually wide, flipper-like arms and legs, with which it propelled itself through the shallow Western Interior Sea that covered much of North America about 75 million years ago.  Like modern turtles, Archelon had a human-like life span as well as a nasty bite, which would have come in handy when tussling with the giant squids that constituted the bulk of its diet. One specimen on display in Vienna is thought to have lived for over 100 years, and probably would have survived much longer if it hadnt asphyxiated on the sea floor. Why did Archelon grow to such an enormous size? Well, at the time this prehistoric turtle lived, the Western Interior Sea was well-stocked with the vicious marine reptiles known as mosasaurs (a good example being the contemporary Tylosaurus), some of which measured over 20 feet long and weighed four or five tons. Clearly, a speedy, two-ton marine turtle would have been a less appetizing prospect to hungry predators than smaller, more pliable fish and squids, though its not inconceivable that Archelon occasionally found itself on the wrong side of the food chain (if not by a hungry mosasaur, then perhaps by a plus-sized prehistoric shark like Cretoxyrhina).

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Homework Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 6

Homework - Assignment Example Mallor, et al., 2012) in their contract stating that full payment for the ordered goods will be rendered upon successful delivery of goods in perfect condition. Whereas, any circumstance that result to failure of delivery will therefore discharge the buyer from paying the agreed amount for the transaction. Setting conditions in a contract protects both parties from being charged with breach especially if failure of delivery is a result of force majeure. On the other hand, the seller must secure a conditioned contract with a third party - insurance companies of the cargo ships – where, under the classification of condition precedent (Mallor, et al., 2012), the monetary amount insured will be collected by the seller in instances that their goods are damaged during transport. In addition, their bond with the buyer must indicate specific conditions to prevent allegation of breach of contract from the other party if such circumstance occur. Nevertheless, condition stated by the seller must indicated non-performance of expected duty only in force majeure situations such as bad weather condition that result in damage of goods during transport thus preventing excuses to non-performance other that what is indicated in the contract (Mallor, et al.,

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Hca Hospital Corporation of America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Hca Hospital Corporation of America - Essay Example Indirect competition from companies that produce cheaper substitutes also encourages the business to grow otherwise it will be pushed out of the market. The desire by organisations to enjoy economies of scale in terms of management, purchases, production, marketing among other forces them to expand which guarantees them saving due to bulk purchase of materials, spreading of overheads, higher bargaining power and expert management (Kazanjian & Drazin, 2009). Increase in demand for the products that a company manufactures also contributes to the motivation of a firm to grow in order to meet the growing demand for its products and services. Prestige and power that comes with managing big firms may also motivate the management to expand their organisations (Kumar, 2010). In addition, government policy in some countries, especially the planned economies requires business to operate under certain rules and regulations. Businesses may grow in order for them to meet these regulations and enj oy the quotas, subsidies and incentives that the government gives to businesses. With the controversies that have surrounded Hospital Corporation of America (HCA), the company need to review its growth strategies to ensure it redeems its image and to put it in a constant path of growth. In coming up with the most effective strategies for growth, the company need to consider and follow the following steps. First, the company should plan about its growth strategies in order to for them to focus on meeting the customers’ needs and showing the corporations ability to meet them. Health care corporation of America manages a number of hospitals and medical centres in unites states and in united kingdom which provide general and specialised medical services to its clients. In planning, the hospital should put into consideration the various specific needs of the clients and employees in the countries and in different departments. The plan should be client focussed clearly detailing th e goals, strategies, and tactics that will be used and a specific timeline within which the goals will be achieved. The timeline should set aside time for training and mentoring employees to the organisational culture and best practises in the field of health care. The plan should also include the methods that the company intend to use in training, coaching and measuring the progress of the employees. Including staff in coming up with a strategy by allowing their input at the appropriate level will enable the management to obtain their commitment and accountability to the organisation. The employees should be engaged in customer-focussed tactics that will ensure the corporation attracts new customers and retains the old ones. Role playing and scripting among employees will also be important, as it will give the employees a chance to test their newly learned skills. The corporation should provide mentorship programs by pairing new employees with old experienced employees. As a way of boosting morale among employees, the corporation should adopt some measuring and rewarding mechanisms in its growth strategy. Compensation and reward programs, staff development and training should be aligned with activities and results of staff involved in improving customer experience in the corporation; this will be to boost the morale of the staff to offer their best to

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

How Schools and Services Support and Protect Children and Families Essay

How Schools and Services Support and Protect Children and Families - Essay Example The epidemic proportions of the incidents of child abuse and neglect are very alarming and call for instant action on the part of government, schools and private institutions. As the rate and the extent of these problems increase, there is also a need for a more unified response on the part of the school, government and other social service providers. The social services along with schools can aid in providing the necessary guidance, support, and direction to the children and their parents. The primary functions of the schools to soundly educate are the best protection a child can get. However, in today’s world, the social and physical problems of the children have grown so large and complex that it is rather foolish to focus on just the academic needs of the children. The problem of physical violence and crime is becoming a commonplace issue in schools. The U.S. Department of Justice estimates that the number of robbery or violent crime incidents on or near school grounds is 3 million per school year (Hatkoff 1994). The fact that an increasing number of children are fearful and cautious about taking a trip to and from school and tend to avoid particular places at school out of fear of an attack. The issue of violence and assault in schools is extremely complex and the concern over its consequences is increasing as it has long-lasting physical and emotional consequences. The government authorities are realizing this and initiating program and directing funds to local school districts for the purpose of making schools safer. There are many programs which are being initiated at schools to help students recognize that bullying is wrong and a cowardly act by people with low self esteem. Children who are known to be affected by domestic abuse or substance misuse are supported effectively at schools. The value of this service is unparalleled as it manages the children’s behavior and supports their development. A study issued by The Department of Education reflects the role of the school in helping the student to build healthy relationships inside and outside the school. The study recommends involving the parents and community to collaborate and aid in building disciplined, safe and healthy relationship of the students with the outside world (U.S. Department of Education, 1993). The teacher having influence and authority over the students can be helpful in creating a safe environment, free of any kind of physical abuse or violence.Teens, Crime and the Community (TCC) is one interactive program that incorporates the students in execution at all the stages of the program. It is launched by the National Crime Prevention Council and it has an aim to educate young people about crime, delinquency and involves them in projects which help them to make their schools and communities safer (National Crime Prevention Council, 1993). This program has been successfully implemented in more than 500 US sch ools in 40 states, involving more than 400,000 youths.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Assembler Directives of 8086 Microprocessor

Assembler Directives of 8086 Microprocessor INTRODUCTION: Assembly languages are low-level languages for programming computers, microprocessors, microcontrollers, and other IC. They implement a symbolic representation of the numeric machine Codes and other constants needed to program a particular CPU architecture. This representation is usually defined by the hardware manufacturer, and is based on abbreviations that help the programmer to remember individual instructions, registers. An assembler directive is a statement to give direction to the assembler to perform task of the assembly process. It control the organization if the program and provide necessary information to the assembler to understand the assembly language programs to generate necessary machine codes. They indicate how an operand or a section of the program is to be processed by the assembler. An assembler supports directives to define data, to organise segments to control procedure, to define macros. It consists of two types of statements: instructions and directives. The instructions are translated to the machine code by the assembler whereas directives are not translated to the machine codes. Assembler Directives of the 8086 Microprocessor (a) The DB directive (b) The DW directive (c) The DD directive (d) The STRUCT (or STRUC) and ENDS directives (counted as one) (e)The EQU Directive (f)The COMMENT directive (g)ASSUME (h) EXTERN (i) GLOBAL (j) SEGMENT (k)OFFSET (l) PROC (m)GROUP (n) INCLUDE Data declaration directives: 1. DB The DB directive is used to declare a BYTE -2-BYTE variable A BYTE is made up of 8 bits. Declaration examples: Byte1 DB 10h Byte2 DB 255 ; 0FFh, the max. possible for a BYTE CRLF DB 0Dh, 0Ah, 24h ;Carriage Return, terminator BYTE 2. DW The DW directive is used to declare a WORD type variable A WORD occupies 16 bits or (2 BYTE). Declaration examples: Word DW 1234h Word2 DW 65535; 0FFFFh, (the max. possible for a WORD) 3. DD The DD directive is used to declare a DWORD A DWORD double word is made up of 32 bits =2 Words or 4 BYTE. Declaration examples: Dword1 DW 12345678h Dword2 DW 4294967295 ;0FFFFFFFFh. 4. STRUCT and ENDS directives to define a structure template for grouping data items. (1) The STRUCT directive tells the assembler that a user defined uninitialized data structure follows. The uninitialized data structure consists of a combination of the three supported data types. DB, DW, and DD. The labels serve as zero-based offsets into the structure. The first elements offset for any structure is 0. A structure element is referenced with the base + operator before the elements name. A Structure ends by using the ENDS directive meaning END of Structure. Syntax: STRUCT Structure_element_name element_data_type? . . . . . . . . . ENDS (OR) STRUC Structure_element_name element_data_type? . . . . . . . . . ENDS DECLARATION: STRUCT Byte1 DB? Byte2 DB? Word1 DW? Word2 DW? Dword1DW? Dword2 DW? ENDS Use OF STRUCT: The STRUCT directive enables us to change the order of items in the structure when, we reform a file header and shuffle the data. Shuffle the data items in the file header and reformat the sequence of data declaration in the STRUCT and off you go. No change in the code we write that processes the file header is necessary unless you inserted an extra data element. (5) The EQU Directive The EQU directive is used to give name to some value or symbol. Each time the assembler finds the given names in the program, it will replace the name with the value or a symbol. The value can be in the range 0 through 65535 and it can be another Equate declared anywhere above or below. The following operators can also be used to declare an Equate: THIS BYTE THIS WORD THIS DWORD A variable declared with a DB, DW, or DD directive has an address and has space reserved at that address for it in the .COM file. But an Equate does not have an address or space reserved for it in the .COM file. Example: A Byte EQU THIS BYTE DB 10 A_ word EQU THIS WORD DW 1000 A_ dword EQU THIS DWORD DD 4294967295 Buffer Size EQU 1024 Buffer DB 1024 DUP (0) Buffed_ ptr EQU $ ; actually points to the next byte after the; 1024th byte in buffer. (6) Extern: It is used to tell the assembler that the name or label following the directive are I some other assembly module. For example: if you call a procedure which is in program module assembled at a different time from that which contains the CALL instructions ,you must tell the assembler that the procedure is external the assembler will put information in the object code file so that the linker can connect the two module together. Example: PROCEDURE -HERE SEGMENT EXTERN SMART-DIVIDE: FAR ; found in the segment; PROCEDURES-HERE PROCEDURES-HERE ENDS (7) GLOBAL: The GLOBAL directive can be used in place of PUBLIC directive .for a name defined in the current assembly module; the GLOBAL directive is used to make the symbol available to the other modules. Example: GLOBAL DIVISOR: WORD tells the assembler that DIVISOR is a variable of type of word which is in another assembly module or EXTERN. (8) SEGMENT: It is used to indicate the start of a logical segment. It is the name given to the the segment. Example: the code segment is used to indicate to the assembler the start of logical segment. (9) PROC: (PROCEDURE) It is used to identify the start of a procedure. It follows a name we give the procedure. After the procedure the term NEAR and FAR is used to specify the procedure Example: SMART-DIVIDE PROC FAR identifies the start of procedure named SMART-DIVIDE and tells the assembler that the procedure is far. (10) NAME: It is used to give a specific name to each assembly module when program consists of several modules. Example: PC-BOARD used to name an assembly module which contains the instructions for controlling a printed circuit board. (11) INCLUDE: It is used to tell the assembler to insert a block of source code from the named file into the current source module. This shortens the source module. An alternative is use of editor block command to cop the file into the current source module. (12) OFFSET: It is an operator which tells the assembler to determine the offset or displacement of a named data item from the start of the segment which contains it. It is used to load the offset of a variable into a register so that variable can be accessed with one of the addressed modes. Example: when the assembler read MOV BX.OFFSET PRICES, it will determine the offset of the prices. (13) GROUP: It can be used to tell the assembler to group the logical segments named after the directive into one logical group. This allows the contents of all he segments to be accessed from the same group. Example: SMALL-SYSTEM GROUP CODE, DATA, STACK-SEG.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Cultural Messages in Solomon Gursky Was Here Essay -- Solomon Gursky W

Cultural Messages in Solomon Gursky Was Here Solomon Gursky Was Here   is an epic novel spanning nearly a century and a half, from the mid 1800's to 1980's.   It is the story of the obsession of   Moses Berger, a Rhodes scholar turned alcoholic, with Solomon Gursky, the charismatic son of a poor immigrant.   Solomon, with his brother Bernard and Morrie, built the massive liquor empire of McTavish industries.   Moses is attempting to write a biography of Solomon, which becomes his life's work.   Through his investigations the complex story of five generations of Gurskys is revealed.   The eldest is Ephraim, Solomon's criminal, perpetually scheming grandfather.   Ephraim, is constantly associated with the raven, he escaped imprisonment in England in the mid 1800's by forging documents, also allowing him to join a crew searching for the Northwest passage, called the Franklin Expedition. The expedition turned into a total disaster, Ephraim, the sole survivor.  Ã‚   The youngest Gursky appearing in this story is Is aac, Solomon's grandson.   This complex tale unravels, as Moses recalls, all of the events in his life which pertain to it.   Ever present in this Canadian cultural satire is the theme of filial relationships and the exploration of Solomon and his re-incarnation as Sir Hyman Kaplansky, in conjunction with his family and their exploits.   Every character in this novel is in some way corrupt or failure.   Moses is an alcoholic who did not live up to his potential; Bernard is a greedy self-centered bastard;    Solomon is a cheat, when it comes to gambling, women and anything else you can think of.  Ã‚   Richler, through this exaggeration of corruption a... ...ursky family and their diverse interests, life-styles and undertakings allows Richlers readers to grasp many parts of Canada in many different time frames.   This in turn allows him to satirize the stereotypes of Canada, its people and their culture.   Adding to idea of corruption, which enhances this satire, are the filial relationships occurring in this novel. The fact that all these relationships are unsuccessful and non-cordial, enhances the idea that all Canadians roots are in some way corrupt or failures.   Richler, shows how these traits are passed through generation after generation.  Ã‚   There can be no doubt that Solomon, one of the most corrupt characters in the book, becomes Sir Hyman after his staged death.   Richler has tied his complex story of Solomon Gursky, his family and their exploits together with his cultural messages

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Brand Before Revitalization

The brand before revitalization (Part A) Brand: Hui Lau Shan (Local Dessert Chain) History of Hui Lau Shan Hui Lau Shan ( ) is a famous chain of dessert shops based in Hong Kong. It specializes in dessert soups, snacks and desserts. Hui Lau Shan is well known for its use of mango in its products. The first shop opened in Yuen Long, New Territories in the 1960s. It was known for its turtle jelly and herbal teas. However, Hui Lau Shan emphasizes its fruit desserts and snacks. Since the 1990s, the chain has expanded. Moreover, it has focused on the mainland market. LogoHui Lau Shan’s logo is a letterform that is readable. The logo just is the brand`s name, Hui Lau Shan ( ). It is use of Chinese Calligraphy that can show its long history. A majority of herbal tea shops are used to use the same form to design their logo. It is costly to promote its brand because there is a heavy visual competition. On the other, the use of Chinese calligraphy may be too old fashioned for young cust omers. It cannot attract young guy`s attention. However, other desserts shops have realized this truth, such as Honeymoon Dessert ( ). Its logo is more fashionable and seems to be smart.Problems: 1. Use of Chinese calligraphy is old-fashioned design. 2. The logo has never had representative characteristics. Solution: 1. Using a new font style, such as Cooper Black. Cooper Black is commonplace in the food packaging and logo of some food products. It can get up customer`s appetite. 2. Designing a special symbol that is a shape of mango. It is a representation of its mango desserts. Target customers Its target customers are kids and young people who like to eat desserts. When they feel thirsty, they prefer to buy a drink, likes cool mango dessert soup.In the same case, the middle-age people and the elderly will prefer to buy a bottle of water. They don`t like the sweet taste and pay more attention to their health. The brand after revitalization (Part B) Brand: Hui Lau Shan (Local Desse rt Chain) Logo and logotype: First of all, I select the use of combination mark that includes symbol and logo. The left logo (Chinese version) has a shape of mango that can gain the label effect. Everyone would realize that its mango desserts are well-known and delicious. Then, I use the font style likes Cooper Black as it is commonplace in package of food products. Since 1960† shows customers that it was a long history firm. Secondly, the right that is logotype (English version) also is two shapes of mango. It gets the label effect too. The special font style can catch young customer’s attention since it is new and unique. Taglines: The first tagline is â€Å"best mango in town† that claims that the best mango desserts are totally in Hui Lau Shan. If you want to taste the best, you have to come to Hui Lau Shan. The second is â€Å"sweet is life† that wants to promote the dessert culture. It says that eating desserts become your custom. It may like coffee culture and become a trend. Re-positioning:In order to attract more young guys, I decided to change the old-fashioned style. I prefer to use cartoon characters in some applications, such as business card, cup, paper napkin, etc. It also determined to focus on its mango desserts (main product). The signature color is yellow that is the color of mangos. The typeface is Cooper Black. Application strategy: I am going to use the new logo and logotype in business card, cup, paper napkin and making up the stores. I also designed several mango cartoon characters. They are pretty cute and active. They contribute to a fresh and younger image, and they can attract the attention of kids.Moreover, I would promote the revitalized brand through TV advertisements, promotions. At the first day, I would put a full page advertisement in the newspapers in Hong Kong. After, we will give customers some coupons and â€Å"buy 1 get 1† promotion. Conclusion: Hui Lau Shan will become a new dessert cha in and be more famous in Hong Kong. In the visible future, I can see it will be the best mango desserts store in Hong Kong. It is because it more focuses on its mango and invents many new mango desserts. It has a fresh image and become more pleasing to the eyes. It help young people to accept an old shop in Hong Kong.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

The Sons Veto

The Sons Veto Thomas Hardy was an English novelist and poet and his story ‘The Sons Veto’ is based on the rigid class system popular in Victorian England. At that time, women were perceived as having a diminutive purpose with little independence. The restrains of society were clearly seen in Sophy’s character. Hardy opens the story with a detailed description on a woman’s hair. He comments on the fashion of that time. Her name was Sophy and she was born in the country village of Gaymead in a remote nook of North Wessex.As a young girl, she worked as a parlour maid in the house of the reverend, Mr. Twycott. Sophy had a young man named Sam Hobson, a gardener in the village. After a few months, Sophy wanted to leave her job and marry Sam but couldn’t do so after Mr. Twycott’s wife died. She decided to stay back and also had a quarrel with Sam regarding her decision. As time progressed, Mr. Twycott realized how dependent he was on Sophy. He became ill and whilst he was ill, Sophy brought his meals to him.One day, she slipped on the stairs while taking the tray down. She twisted her foot in the fall. Mr. Twycott’s health became better although Sophy was no longer able to walk. The parson felt guilty for her and asked her to marry him; she felt as though she was unable to refuse and felt obligated to marry him in order to be socially accepted. She married the vicar out of respect and not love. She was more concerned over her future and knew that any marriage would mean that she would have a home and a good lifestyle in the imminent years.As the story progresses, Mr. Twycott dies and Sophy raises a son all by herself. The author sets up a social detachment between Sophy and her son, Randolph through the language they speak. Sophy could not formulate sentences correctly and her incorrect grammar would blatantly annoy Randolph. Sophy as a woman had her deficiencies. One day while sitting by her window, she found her childh ood friend Sam. They get together after so many years and after a few days he proposes to her.When she talked to her son he was positive about the idea of remarriage but became angry when he found out that the man was a farmer. In a fit of rage, he made her swear on the cross that she would never marry Sam. One may also interpret it to be Sophy’s fault, which wouldn’t be incorrect, however Randolph gains a sort of power over her eventually leading to her death that could have been avoided had he not been so full of pride for himself.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Brutal Facts That Universities Must Face Today Term Paper

The Brutal Facts That Universities Must Face Today Term Paper The Brutal Facts That Universities Must Face Today – Term Paper Example The Brutal Facts Universities Must Face Today Whatever it is that universities look like today is far much different from how they used to look like fifty years ago. Similarly, by 2030, the universities will look totally different again. But "how has our universities changed and what has made them change in that manner?" is the main question that should be unraveled. The current condition of our universities presents "brutal facts" that we have to deal with, however, unpleasant they may look. Such facts present university and higher education at large, in America, at crossroads (Ricardo 1).Some of the facts that we have to deal with in our universities are positive while others are negative. One such fact is on the university funding that has since been reduced. Public funding to support education has been greatly reduced leaving the students with huge tuition fees to pay to support their education. This is a fact that leaves the students with huge debts that they owe to the loans in stitutions that fund education through offering loans to students. This has not even taken into consideration other fees that each university charges to its students such as high parking fees at the Valparaiso University. The students have to part with $140 per semester just to secure parking in the school. As a result, university education remains very expensive in todays world, and we have to deal with it. Secondly, universities are also faced with the challenges brought about by the rapid demographic changes. Such have seen an increasing higher number of students seek university education. Universities have limited resources and spaces for students. However, they are required to admit quite a huge number of students. This increases the rate of international students seeking education in other countries with more universities with adequate resources. Such students may also face discrimination in some instance where the host country students, like here in Valparaiso, may not treat them in a friendly manner. The universities are for this reason expected to recognize such facts and deal with them at the management level.Thirdly, the current technological advancement has come to the rescue of our universities by spurring innovation as it makes university education more affordable and obtainable. However, this fact has also been faced with the challenges of the socio-economic inequalities where only wealthy and more sophisticated students can afford such kind of education in a more enriching manner. Technology also renders some teaching methods obsolete and makes the university adjust with the technological changes to remain effective and efficient. In a nutshell, current universities are faced with very brutal facts give the universities a hard time to deal with. Most of these facts tend to be because of the transitions that the universities have to pass through. If this trend continues, future universities will be faced with even more brutal facts, that what we face today, that they will be required to deal with.Work CitedRicardo, Azziz. "American Higher Education Crisis?- A Fact-filled and Thought-Provoking Must Read." The Blog (2015): 1. Web. .

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free sample - Complex Congenital Heart Disease. translation missing

Complex Congenital Heart Disease. Complex Congenital Heart DiseaseComplex Congenital Heart Disease Congenital heart disease is a defect   or malformation in the structure of the heart or vessels that supply it with blood. This defect occurs as the fetus develops in the uterus and is therefore present at birth (Pampel, 2004). This defect   interferes with the normal flow of blood through the heart. Complex congenital heart disease requires immediate medical attention since it can be very fatal. Complex congenital heart disease can be attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. A pregnant woman who suffers rheumatic heart disease produces antibodies which act against the Ro and La auto antigens in the fetus (Pampel, 2004).   The part of the Ro antigen targeted by the antibodies from the mother is called p200 protein. The more the number of antibodies produced against this protein, the more the damage to the heart of the fetus. This antibody - antigen reaction causes the inflammation and subsequent calcification of the cardiac system of the fetus hence damaging the he art structure (Calnan, 1991). Researchers also have it that anti-seizure medication taken by a pregnant woman makes the fetus more vulnerable to congenital heart disease. Pregnant women who take lithium to treat depression, as well as those who have phenylketonuria (PKU) and do not strictly take the special diet prescribed to them predispose the fetus to the attack (Calnan, 1991). Women who contract   the Rubella virus and those who get vaccinated against the same stand higher chances of giving birth to children with CHD. Other studies indicate that this condition has autosomal-dominant inheritance meaning that mothers who have the condition stand about fifty percent chances of passing it to the child (Kaplan, 2002). A number of Chromosome abnormalities can also result to CHD. These include: Down syndrome, trisomy 18 and 13, turner’s syndrome, cri du chat syndrome, wolf – Hirsh horn syndrome   and Digeorge syndrome ( deletion 22q11). Genetic syndromes have also been shown to make one more vulnerable to the condition. These are: Marfan syndrome, Smith-lemli-optiz syndrome, Ellis-van Creveld, Holt- Oram syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and Mucopolysaccharidoses (Kaplan, 2002). Errors at any stage in the embryological development of the heart can result in   congenital heart disease.   This development occurs between the third and the ninth week of the gestation period (American Heart [AH], 2010). The heart is formed when a group of cells join to form sheets of tissue, which then join to form a tube whose growth results in the formation of the atria and ventricles (AH, 2010). The resulting tissue undergoes twists and turns while the atria, ventricles and truncus undergo septation.   The antrioventricular canal and conus align the portions of the heart in a manner that allows smooth blood flow. If any error occurs during this process, then heart complications such as the congenital heart disease result (AH, 2010). Incidences of congenital heart disease are on the rise according to recent studies. Data from researchers in the western industrialized world for instance indicate that the incidence of the condition has increased from about three to five per every one thousand live births to about twelve per every one thousand live births. Some researchers though argue that this increase can be attributed to technological advances which have seen the invention of more sensitive detection methods (AH, 2010).    Left to right shunts is the commonest physiology associated with congenital heart disease. This occurs when oxygenated blood   goes back to the lungs to get re-oxygenated. This return causes a redundancy in the circulation. This leads to an increased venous return from the lungs through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium as well as the left ventricle. This causes the left ventricle to experience volume overload (Larsen, 1993). In a nutshell, left to right shunt causes a volume overload on the left ventricle, as well as pulmonary circulation and reduced systematic output. Left to right shunt lesions   cause physiological alterations at the ventricular or great artery level. Congestive heart failure can occur between week two and six as a result of a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistances which is accompanied by an increase in systemic vascular resistances as well as physiological nadir in the hemoglobin (Larsen, 1993). Increased left to right blood shunting ultimately results to   pulmonary vasculature which causes hyperplasia of the vessel walls and subsequent hypertension (Kenneth, 1997). Ventricular septal defect is a defect which also occurs in patients with congenital heart disease. In this case, there is a left to right shunt across the ventricular level. During this shunting, blood from the left ventrical is ejected during systole to the pulmonary circulation. This blood causes a volume   overload   to the left atrium as well as the left ventricle (Kenneth, 1997). Patent ductus arteriosus   is characterized by a left to right shunt during systole and diastole from the aorta to the pulmonary artery. Owing to the presence   of   higher pressure in the aorta as compared to that in the pulmonary artery, the left to right shunt gets continuous.   This causes a volume overload on the left atrium as well as the left ventricle. A large degree of PDA results in pulmonary vascular disease (Larsen, 1993). Truncus arteriosus occurs whereby, the pulmonary arteries are joined to the aorta. Patients who suffer this condition experience higher occurrences of pulmonary hypertension and vascular disease (Larsen, 1993).    Right to left shunt occurs when the deoxygenated blood that goes to the lungs for oxygenation returns back to the body without reoxygenation. One condition associated with this is tetralogy of fallot. This is a condition occurring as a result of the presence of RV outflow obstruction. It results to a right to left shunt across the VSD (Hoffman, 2005). A person suffering from this condition is cyanotic as a result of paucity of pulmonary blood flow. This blood inadequacy results in a smaller left ventricle than the right one owing to a reduction in the pulmonary venous return (Hoffman, 2005). Congenital heart disease is discovered in some cases when the mother undergoes a ultrasound scan during pregnancy. Other cases are not discovered during this scan and therefore they   are discovered through symptoms when the baby is born (Hoffman,2005). In other cases still, the new born doesn’t   show symptoms of the condition until later years. Some people grow to adulthood without showing symptoms of the condition. Signs and symptoms of this disease include: recurrent lung infections, shortness of breath which is also rapid, fatigue especially during exercises, lack of appetite, low rate of weight gain, sweating while eating, weak pulse in babies and cyanosis color on the skin around the mouth, lips as well as the tongue (Niessen, 2008).    The diagnosis of congenital heart disease can be done before or after birth. Antenatal diagnosis is done through a fetal echocardiography which is a type of ultrasound scanner designed to create a picture of the sides of the heart chambers. This test is done   in the course of regular antenatal examinations which come during the 18th and 20th week of pregnancy (Niessen, 2008).   Post natal diagnosis is compulsory if the baby presents with some of the signs of the disease such as blue color around the lips, feeding problems, slow rate of growth, etc. methods used   during this diagnosis include: Electrocardiogram, a test that measures the heart’s electrical activity (Niessen, 2008). This method involves placing electrodes on the skin above the heart which are then connected to a computer. Electrical signals coming from the heart are then analyzed by the computer (Shanley, 2007). Chest x-ray can also be used to detect the disease. This x-ray basically examines if there is excess amount of blood in the lungs or if the heart size is normal. Excess blood in the lungs and a larger heart are signs of the disease (Shanley, 2007). Pulse oximetry is also a detection method that measures the amount of blood present in the child’s blood. A special sensor is placed in the child’s fingertip, ear or toe which sends out light waves. Absorption of the light waves is checked via a computer since the absorption behavior can indicate the oxygen levels in the blood (Shanley, 2007). Cardiac catheterization as a detection method seeks to find out blood pumping behavior. A catheter is inserted in one of the major blood vessels in the groin. Its then pushed to the heart though the assistance of x-rays or MRI scanners. Blood   pressure readings at different parts of the heart are then recorded by a small pressure monitor attached to the end of catheter (Larsen, 1993) . Treatment of this condition involves administering medicines which can make the heart beat regular incase its not.   The medicines basically mitigate the symptoms before an operation to fix the problem is administered. These medicines include a prostaglandin inhibitor administered to   a premature baby to assist in closing a patent ductus arteriosus (Niessen, 2008).   Heart catheterization   discussed under diagnosis can also be used to fix the problem. Surgery if necessary is advisable when the baby is strong enough to withstand it. Open heart surgery is carried out if the problem cannot be fixed using a catheter. This surgery aims at closing holes with the help of stitches or patches, repairing or replacing damaged heart valves, and   repairing complex defects (Niessen, 2008). If the problem is too severe to repair, a transplant is recommended. The heart to be used is normally obtained through a donation by   the family of a diseased child (AH, 2010). Nursing care for young ones with congenital heart disease involves basics such as feeding, giving medicines, watching and recording trouble signs, and encouraging them to get involved in their health care program (AH, 2010). Involving the child in the health care program would help them understand why they have a scar, why they need to take medicine, as well as the positive impact play can have to the general wellness of their heart. The child is also helped to understand the need to take certain nutrients such as boiled fish, Mediterranean diet and others which strengthen the heart (AH, 2010). There are several support groups throughout the world for children with heart diseases. Mended little hearts for instance is a support group that helps families with such children (AH, 2010). The Mary bridge child life department offers pre-operative tours for children as well as families scheduled for treatments such as heart catheterization, and cardiothoracic surgery. We also have care pages which are free, private, as well as personalized WebPages pages which patients can visit to obtain any form of advice and care required (AH, 2010). These pages are available at multicare facilities so patients can always keep in touch for any care needed. A patient can post a question as far as care is concerned which is replied with messages of support (AH, 2010). The following is a list of such websites which one can visit for information regarding children’s heart care,   diagnosis, treatment as well as support resources: American Heart Association, Children’s Heart Institut e, Children’s   Hospital Health System of Wisconsin, Children’s mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Congenital Heart Defect Online Hand   book, Congenital Heart Defects (Texas Heart Institute), Congenital Heart Defects ( Texas Heart Institute)- in Spanish, Congenital Heart Information Network, Heart Centre Online, and Heart Institute for Children (AH, 2010). Children with congenital Heart disease have a poorer quality life   than those who are healthy. Children with more severe complications have a   very bad physical and physiological quality of life. For instance, such children are advised against getting involved in certain type of exercises hence they are not free to interact with their peers in every thing. Such   children also end up with very poor psychological life as a result of limited social interactions with their peers (AH, 2010). In conclusion, this paper has discussed the etiology of congenital heart disease. Genetic factors causing the disease have included: rheumatic heart disease in the mother, Chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, trisomy 18 and 13, turner’s syndrome, cri du chat syndrome, wolf – Hirsh horn syndrome   and Digeorge syndrome ( deletion 22q11). Genetic syndromes have also been shown to make one more vulnerable to the condition. These have included : Marfan syndrome, Smith-lemli-optiz syndrome, Ellis-van Creveld, Holt- Oram syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and Mucopolysaccharidoses. Environmental factors leading to the disease have included: in take of substances such as lithium by the mother as well as Rubella virus. Embryology of the disease has also been discussed with errors in heart formation being linked to the disease. Incidences of the disease have been seen to rise with recent research indicating   about twelve incidences per every one thousand live births. The pathophysiology of the disease has been discussed with effects of both left to right and right to left shunts being analyzed. The effects have included but not limited to : pulmonary vascular disease, pulmonary vasculature which causes hyperplasia of the vessel walls, hypertension and   Congestive heart failure. Diagnosis methods have included both prenatal and post natal. Postnatal methods have included Electrocardiogram, Pulse oximetry, Chest x-ray, and Cardiac catheterization. Both medicinal and surgical procedures for treating the disease have been discussed. Support groups for patients with the disease have included: American Heart Association, Children’s Heart Institute, Children’s   Hospital Health System of Wisconsin, Children’s mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Congenital Heart Defect Online Hand   book, Congenital Heart Defects (Texas Heart Institute), Congenital Heart Defects ( Texas Heart Institute)- in Spanish, Congenital Heart Information Netw ork, Heart Centre Online, and Heart Institute for Children.   References Pampel, F. (2004). Progress against Heart Disease. London: Praeger . Calnan, M. (1991). Preventing Coronary Heart Disease: Prospects, Policies and Politics. New York: Routledge   Kaplan, H. (2002). The incidence of congenital heart disease. London: Oxford University Press Larsen, W. (1993). â€Å"Development of the Heart†. Human Embryology. London: Churchill Livingstone. Kenneth, J.(1997). Smith’s recognizable patterns of human malformation. 5th ed.   London: Routledge.   Hoffman, J. (2005). Essential Cardiology : Principles and Practice. Totowa: Humana Press Niessen, K. (2008). â€Å" Notch Signaling in Cardiac Development† Circulation Research. London: Oxford University Press Complex Congenital Heart Disease 12 Shanley, T. (2007). Pediatric critical care medicine: basic science and clinical evidence. London: Praeger .