Thursday, November 7, 2019

Using ONE example to illustrate your points, expla Essays (2138 words)

Using ONE example to illustrate your points, expla Essays (2138 words) Using ONE example to illustrate your points, explain how to evaluate a research study Plan Does the evidence to support claims Experimental design Sampling method and participants 3. Methodological problems and their implications/are there any contradictions or inconsistencies within data (Ecological validity and reliability) How are confounding variables are controlled? Representativeness Recognition of bias Is it reductionist? 4. Does it establish a cause-effect relationship 5. Does it extend current knowledge? Sample study: Loftus and Palmer (1974) An extensive evaluation of a psychological study consists of a thorough examination of its strengths and limitations.This consists of a critical analysis of the holistic experimental process of how the experiment was carried out, with particular emphasis to the methodology of the study. An example experiment conducted by Loftus and Palmer (1974), investigates whether language used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory. This hypothesis was tested by using leading questions to distort eyewitness testimony. The experimental design is the first approach to evaluating a psychological study. In this example, the experimental design for Loftus and Palmer (1974) was an independent groups design and was conducted in a rigorously controlled laboratory environment. Loftus and Palmer (1974), had five conditions where one of each was experienced by each participant (Mcleod 2017). The independent variable was the intensity of the verb to describe two cars in a traffic accident film; thus, the five groups were using the verbs "contact", "hit", "bumped", "collided" and "smashed". The strengths of using independent groups design are that more subjects can be used for the experiment rather than having the same subjects perform all the conditions of the experiment as in a repeated measures design. Using an independent groups prevents participant fatigue as the participants did not have to perform all five conditions, which could be a confounding variable affecting the results of the study. However, a disadvantage is that the differences between the participants, such as age, gender, or culture which could affect the results. This is because there can be inferences and judgement made from the studies which were rather "due to individual differences r ather than the independent variable condition" (Danshepherd 2012) . The second step is to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the sampling method and the participants used. The sampling method used in Loftus and Palmer's (1974) experiment used opportunity sampling. Although practical, using opportunity sampling can contribute to bias because it means using only the participants available at a given time and place rather than being representative of a general population. Furthermore, the participants used in Loftus and Palmer's (1974) experiment were all undergraduate students. Students are not representative of the general population and with regards to this experiment, they may be less experienced drivers and therefore, this would have altered their perception of the verb used when estimating speeds (Mcleod 2017). Lastly, the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology should be acknowledged when evaluating any psychology experiment. The implications of the choices taken by the researcher to control variables, and whether there were any inconsistencies with the data should be identified. Loftus and Palmer's (1974) experiment was a highly controlled laboratory experiment. Therefore, one argument made as a weakness is that the results are not ecologically valid because in real life, people do not watch films of an incident. Instead, they witness these incidents first hand. Therefore, the study conducted by Yuille and Cutshall (1986) contradicts this study by making the participants witness an incident first hand which "found that misleading information did not alter the memory of people who had witnessed a real armed robbery". (Mcleod 2017). However, due to the controlled nature of the experiment, it is reliable and easy to replicate. The confounding variables are easier to control in a laborato ry experiment. This prevents these extraneous variables affecting the results of the study. Hence, it is plausible to suggest a cause-effect relationship from the study. Using TEACUPs to evaluate theories Evaluate ONE theory from the BLOA and ONE theory from the CLOA using the TEACUP approach: BLOA theory: Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution Those who adapt best to environmental challenges will have a greater chance of survival, reproduction, and passing on genes. Natural selection refers to the idea that members of a species that survive competition and breed will

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